Segmental colonic transit after oral 67Ga-citrate in healthy subjects and those with chronic idiopathic constipation.
Measurement of segmental colonic transit is important in the assessment of patients with severe constipation. 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been established as the tracer of choice for these studies, but it is expensive and not readily available. 67Ga-citrate is an inexpensive tracer and when given orally is not absorbed from the bowel. It was compared with 111In-DTPA in colonic transit studies in nonconstipated control subjects and then in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Studies were performed after oral administration of 3 MBq (81 microCi) 67Ga-citrate or 4 MBq (108 microCi) 111In-DTPA in solution. Serial abdominal images were performed up to 96 h postinjection, and computer data were generated from geometric mean images of segmental retention of tracer, mean activity profiles and a colonic tracer half-clearance time. RESULTS: There were no differences in segmental retention of either tracer or in mean activity profiles between control subjects and constipated patients. Results in constipated subjects were significantly different from those in controls. The mean half-clearance times of tracer for control subjects were 28.8 h for 67Ga-citrate and 29.9 h for 111In-DTPA in control subjects and 75.0 h for 67Ga-citrate and 70.8 h for 111In-DTPA in constipated patients. CONCLUSION: Oral 67Ga-citrate can be used as a safe alternative to 111In-DTPA for accurate measurement of segmental colonic transit. (+info)
Inhibition of myosin ATPase by metal fluoride complexes.
Magnesium (Mg2+) is the physiological divalent cation stabilizing nucleotide or nucleotide analog in the active site of myosin subfragment 1 (S1). In the presence of fluoride, Mg2+ and MgADP form a complex that traps the active site of S1 and inhibits myosin ATPase. The ATPase inactivation rate of the magnesium trapped S1 is comparable but smaller than the other known gamma-phosphate analogs at 1.2 M-1 s-1 with 1 mM MgCl2. The observed molar ratio of Mg/S1 in this complex of 1.58 suggests that magnesium occupies the gamma-phosphate position in the ATP binding site of S1 (S1-MgADP-MgFx). The stability of S1-MgADP-MgFx at 4 degrees C was studied by EDTA chase experiments but decomposition was not observed. However, removal of excess fluoride causes full recovery of the K+-EDTA ATPase activity indicating that free fluoride is necessary for maintaining a stable trap and suggesting that the magnesium fluoride complex is bonded to the bridging oxygen of beta-phosphate more loosely than the other known phosphate analogs. The structure of S1 in S1-MgADP-MgFx was studied with near ultraviolet circular dichroism, total tryptophan fluorescence, and tryptophan residue 510 quenching measurements. These data suggest that S1-MgADP-MgFx resembles the M**.ADP.Pi steady-state intermediate of myosin ATPase. Gallium fluoride was found to compete with MgFx for the gamma-phosphate site in S1-MgADP-MgFx. The ionic radius and coordination geometry of magnesium, gallium and other known gamma-phosphate analogs were compared and identified as important in determining which myosin ATPase intermediate the analog mimics. (+info)
Imaging experimental intraabdominal abscesses with 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of technetium-99m-labeled polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes (99mTc-PEG liposomes) and technetium-99m-labeled nonspecific human immunoglobulin G (99mTc-HYNIC IgG) for the scintigraphic detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses in comparison with that of a standard agent, gallium-67 citrate. BACKGROUND: Scintigraphic imaging techniques can be very useful for the rapid and accurate localization of intraabdominal abscesses. Two newly developed radiolabeled agents, 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, have shown to be excellent agents for imaging experimental focal infection, but have not yet been studied in the detection of abdominal abscesses. METHODS: Intraabdominal abscesses were induced in 42 rats using the cecal ligation and puncture technique. Seven days later, randomized groups of rats received 99mTc-PEG liposomes, 99mTc-HYNIC IgG, or 67Ga citrate intravenously. The rats were imaged up to 24 hours after the injection. The biodistribution of the radiolabel was determined by counting dissected tissues ex vivo. Macroscopic intraabdominal abnormalities and focal uptake on the images were independently scored on a semiquantitative scale. RESULTS: 99mTc-PEG liposomes provided the earliest scintigraphic visualization of the abscess (as soon as 2 hours after the injection vs. 4 hours for the other two agents). Liposomes, IgG, and gallium all showed similarly high absolute uptake in the abscess. Focal uptake of liposomes and gallium correlated best with the extent of the macroscopic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: 99mTc-PEG liposomes and 99mTc-HYNIC IgG performed at least as well as the standard agent, 67Ga citrate, in the detection of experimental intraabdominal abscesses, with obvious advantages such as lower radiation exposure and more favorable physical properties. Of the two technetium agents, the liposomes seemed to be superior, providing the earliest diagnostic image and the best correlation with the inflammatory abnormalities. In addition, the preferential localization of radiolabeled PEG liposomes holds promise for targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated drugs. (+info)
Fatigue and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion.
Fatigue strength using the stair-case method and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion were measured for evaluating the effects of corrosive environment storage on the mechanical properties of the gallium alloys. The fatigue and the tensile strengths of both gallium alloys stored in artificial saliva were significantly decreased after 12-month storage, while those stored in air increased with storage period. The fracture surfaces of the specimens in artificial saliva showed not only metallic luster but also dark areas. In the dark area, the matrix might have dissolved during immersion. These results suggested that the concern over corrosion resistance of gallium alloys still remained. (+info)
Myositis ossificans demonstrated by positive gallium-67 and technetium-99m-HMDP bone imaging but negative technetium-99m-MIBI imaging.
Gallium-67-citrate and 99mTc-diphosphate bone imaging agents are localized in myositis ossificans, a tumor-like benign soft-tissue mass that makes it impossible to differentiate between malignant tumor and the infection/inflammatory process. We present such a myositis ossificans patient whose bone and 67Ga-citrate imagings showed increased uptake in the left thigh and two foci of the right gluteal region leading to inconclusive results. Technetium-99m-MIBI imaging showed the absence of substantial uptake in these regions. ACT scan confirmed myositis ossificans. The lack of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in myositis ossificans means that 99mTc-MIBI imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis. (+info)
Radiation exposure from gallium-67-citrate patients.
OBJECTIVE: Serial monitoring of patients was performed to determine the radiation exposure contributed by patients injected with 67Ga-citrate to their surroundings. Radiology and nursing staff distance exposure estimates were made for various patient care tasks and imaging tests. METHODS: Fifteen adult patients were surveyed early (mean 4.3 min) and 11 of the 15 were surveyed at 3 d (mean 68.8 h) postinjection. The standard adult lymphoma imaging activity of 333-407 MBq (9-11 mCi) resulted in a range of 3.7-8.1 MBq/kg (0.1-0.22 mCi/kg). Dose rate measurements were made in the anterior, posterior, and left and right lateral projections at the level of the umbilicus, at distances of patient's surface and at 30.5 cm and 100 cm with a calibrated ion chamber. Time of contact-routine task analyses also were obtained for nursing and radiology personnel. Using a radiation survey-derived biexponential pharmacokinetic relationship, radiation exposures were determined for hospital personnel and family members at various times after injection. RESULTS: Based on the study population survey results, the mean instantaneous exposures (microSv/h) for an administered activity of 370 MBq (10 mCi) 67Ga-citrate were determined. The task analyses revealed the maximum patient contact time for any procedure performed at a distance equal to, or less than, 30.5 cm was 30 min. CONCLUSION: The quantitation of radiation exposure scenarios from 67Ga-citrate patients has determined that no special precautions are necessary for medical personnel when performing routine tasks associated with these patients. (+info)
Reduced size of liquefaction necrosis of mitral annular calcification in chronic renal failure by using low calcium concentration hemodialysis.
A report is presented of a liquefaction necrosis of mitral annular calcification in a patient with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who had been managed by hemodialysis for 11 years. The mass was echogenic with an echo-lucent area inside, high density on computed tomography and low intensity on magnetic resonance imaging. The uptake of gallium-67 (67Ga)-citrate and the bone agent technetium-99m-methylene diphosphate (99mTc-MDP) was seen in the mass. These findings were compatible with liquefaction necrosis of the mitral annular calcification. After treatment with low calcium concentration hemodialysis, the size of the mass reduced with disappearance of the echo-lucent area on the echocardiography and there was no uptake of 67Ga-citrate or 99mTc-MDP. Liquefaction necrosis might be the early and reversible form of mitral annular calcification. When a tumorlike echogenic mass at the base of mitral leaflets is seen in patients with predisposing factors for mitral annular calcification, consider the possibility of this specific form of mitral annular calcification in order to avoid any unnecessary surgical intervention. (+info)
Diagnostic role of gallium scanning in the management of lymphoma with mediastinal involvement.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Therapy of both Hodgkin's disease (HD) and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with mediastinal presentation at the time of diagnosis is frequently followed by radiological detection of residual masses. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is generally unable to detect the differences between tumor tissue and fibrosis. Gallium-67-citrate single photon emission ((67)GaSPECT) can potentially differentiate residual active tumor tissue from fibrosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients with HD or aggressive NHL presenting mediastinal involvement (64% with a bulky mass) were studied with CT and (67)GaSPECT at the end of combined modality therapy (chemo- and radiation therapy). RESULTS: After treatment, 3/3 (100%) patients with positive (67)GaSPECT and negative CT scan relapsed while only 1/18 (6%) patients with both negative (67)GaSPECT and CT scan did so. At the same time, 54 patients had a positive restaging CT scan (abnormal mass < 10% of size of initial mass). Of these patients, 13 had a positive (67)GaSPECT, 10 of whom (77%) relapsed; 41 had a negative (67)GaSPECT of whom 5 (12%) relapsed. The 4-year actuarial relapse-free survival rate was 90% for those with negative scans compared with 23% for gallium-positive patients (p < 0.000000). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In lymphoma patients with mediastinal involvement, (67)GaSPECT should be considered, at least in patients who are CT positive, the imaging technique of choice for monitoring and differentiating the nature of any residual masses. (+info)