M100907, a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and putative antipsychotic, blocks dizocilpine-induced prepulse inhibition deficits in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.
In a recent study using Wistar rats, the serotonergic 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin and risperidone reduced the disruptive effects of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine on prepulse inhibition (PPI), suggesting that there is an interaction between serotonin and glutamate in the modulation of PPI. In contrast, studies using the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in Sprague-Dawley rats found no effect with 5-HT2 antagonists. To test the hypothesis that strain differences might explain the discrepancy in these findings, risperidone was tested for its ability to reduce the PPI-disruptive effects of dizocilpine in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, to determine which serotonergic receptor subtype may mediate this effect, the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (formerly MDL 100,907) and the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SDZ SER 082 were tested against dizocilpine. Recent studies have found that the PPI-disruptive effects of PCP are reduced by the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin. Furthermore, the alpha 1 receptor agonist cirazoline disrupts PPI. As risperidone and M100907 have affinity at the alpha 1 receptor, a final study examined whether M100907 would block the effects of cirazoline on PPI. Risperidone partially, but nonsignificantly, reduced the effects of dizocilpine in Wistar rats, although this effect was smaller than previously reported. Consistent with previous studies, risperidone did not alter the effects of dizocilpine in Sprague-Dawley rats. Most importantly, M100907 pretreatment fully blocked the effect of dizocilpine in both strains; whereas SDZ SER 082 had no effect. M100907 had no influence on PPI by itself and did not reduce the effects of cirazoline on PPI. These studies confirm the suggestion that serotonin and glutamate interact in modulating PPI and indicate that the 5-HT2A receptor subtype mediates this interaction. Furthermore, this interaction occurs in at least two rat strains. (+info)
Attenuation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.
Atypical neuroleptics produce fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) than typical neuroleptics. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics is that they have equivalent or higher antagonist affinity for 5-HT2 than for dopamine D2 receptors. Our aim was to identify which 5-HT2 receptor contributed to the atypical profile. Catalepsy was defined as rats remaining immobile over a horizontal metal bar for at least 30 s, 90 min after dosing. Radioligand binding assays were carried out with homogenates of human recombinant 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors expressed in Human Embryo Kidney (HEK293) cells. Haloperidol (1.13 mg kg(-1) i.p.) induced catalepsy in all experiments. The selective 5-HT2C/2B receptor antagonist, SB-228357 (0.32-10 mg kg(-1) p.o.) significantly reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy whereas the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor antagonists, MDL-100907 (0.003-0.1 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and SB-215505 (0.1-3.2 mg kg(-1) p.o.) respectively did not reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The data suggest a role for 5-HT2C receptors in the anticataleptic action of SB-228357. (+info)
Comparison of three different plasma homocysteine assays with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
BACKGROUND: Various methods are available to measure plasma total homocyst(e)ine (tHcy) concentrations, but whether plasma tHcy assays may be used interchangeably is not known. METHODS: Results from three different methods [HPLC with fluorescence detection, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA)] to determine fasting (n = 163) and post-methionine load (n = 80) plasma tHcy concentrations were compared with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Difference plots on non-transformed and log-transformed data were used to assess the agreement between HPLC and GC-MS, EIA and GC-MS, and FPIA and GC-MS. RESULTS: The closest agreement between methods was observed between GC-MS and FPIA for fasting tHcy concentrations, with 95% of the FPIA values between 19% above and 24% below the corresponding GC-MS results. Post-methionine load tHcy concentrations measured by EIA showed the least agreement with GC-MS, with 95% of values measured by EIA ranging between 52% above and 16% below the GC-MS values. With respect to GC-MS, the above-mentioned methods showed a negative bias for fasting tHcy concentrations, but a positive bias for both immunoassays for post-methionine load tHcy concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The agreement among methods is insufficient to allow them to be used interchangeably. The intermethod differences emphasize the need for standardization of plasma tHcy assays. (+info)
5-Hydroxytryptamine(1F) receptors do not participate in vasoconstriction: lack of vasoconstriction to LY344864, a selective serotonin(1F) receptor agonist in rabbit saphenous vein.
Recently, several novel approaches to the treatment of migraine have been advanced, including selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (or serotonin) 1B/1D (5-HT(1B/1D)) receptor agonists such as sumatriptan and 5-HT(1F) receptor agonists such as LY344864. Many 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists have been identified based on their ability to produce cerebral vascular contraction, whereas LY344864 was identified as an inhibitor of trigeminal nerve-mediated dural extravasation. In our study, several triptan derivatives were compared with LY344864 for their ability to contract the rabbit saphenous vein, a tissue used in the preclinical identification of sumatriptan-related agonists. Sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, and naratriptan all contracted the rabbit saphenous vein from baseline tone, whereas LY344864 in concentrations up to 10(-4) M did not contract the rabbit saphenous vein. Furthermore, vascular contractions to sumatriptan were markedly augmented in the presence of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). However, even in the presence of PGF(2alpha) (3 x 10(-7) M), LY344864 did not contract the rabbit saphenous vein in concentrations well in excess of its 5-HT(1F) receptor affinity (pK(i) = 8.2). Only when concentrations exceeded those likely to activate 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors (>10(-5) M) did modest contractile responses occur in the presence of PGF(2alpha). Use of these serotonergic agonists revealed a significant correlation between the contractile potency in the rabbit saphenous vein and the affinities of these agonists at 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, although contractile agonist potencies were not quantitatively similar to 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(1D) receptor affinities. In contrast, no significant correlation existed between the contractile potencies of these serotonergic agonists in the rabbit saphenous vein and their affinity at 5-HT(1F) receptors. These data support the contention that activation of 5-HT(1F) receptors will not result in vascular contractile effects. (+info)
The carboxyl terminus of the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase contacts its sliding clamp at the subunit interface.
The location of the interaction of the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase with its trimeric, circular sliding clamp has been established. A peptide corresponding to the COOH terminus of the DNA polymerase was labeled with a fluorophore and fluorescence spectroscopy used to show that it forms a specific complex with the sliding clamp by virtue of its low K(D) value (7.1 +/- 1.0 microM). The same peptide was labeled with a photoaffinity probe and cross-linked to the sliding clamp. Mass spectrometry of tryptic digests determined the sole linkage point to be Ala-159 on the sliding clamp, an amino acid that lies on the subunit interface. These results demonstrate that the COOH terminus of the DNA polymerase is inserted into the subunit interface of its sliding clamp, thereby conferring processivity to the DNA polymerase. (+info)
Serotonin-2 receptors and human sleep: effect of a selective antagonist on EEG power spectra.
To investigate the effect on the sleep EEG, a 1-mg oral dose of SR 46349B, a novel 5-HT2 antagonist, was administered three hours before bedtime. The drug enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS) and reduced stage 2 without affecting subjective sleep quality. In nonREM sleep (NREMS) EEG slow-wave activity (SWA; power within 0.75-4.5 Hz) was increased and spindle frequency activity (SFA; power within 12.25-15 Hz) was decreased. The relative NREMS power spectrum showed a bimodal pattern with the main peak at 1.5 Hz and a secondary peak at 6 Hz. A regional analysis based on bipolar derivations along the antero-posterior axis revealed significant 'treatment' x 'derivation' interactions within the 9-16 Hz range. In enhancing SWA and attenuating SFA, the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist mimicked the effect of sleep deprivation, whereas the pattern of the NREMS spectrum differed. (+info)
Glutathione as an essential factor for chaperon-mediated activation of lactonizing lipase (LipL) from Pseudomonas sp. 109.
Pseudomonas sp. 109 produces a unique lipase (LipL) which efficiently catalyzes intramolecular transesterification of omega-hydroxyesters to form macrocyclic lactones. The production of the enzymatically active LipL requires a specific molecular chaperon (LimL protein) together with a low-M(r) lipase-activation-factor (LAF) of unknown structure. From 50 g of Pseudomonas cells, 2.15 mg of LAF was purified as a sulfobenzofurazanyl derivative after methanol extraction, derivatization, and C(18) reverse-phase HPLC. One-dimensional and two-dimensional 600 MHz (1)H-NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) revealed that LAF is glutathione. Because several SH compounds (L-cysteine and mercaptoethanol) were similarly effective to native LAF in the activation of LipL, and because only LipL contains two cysteinyl residues forming an intramolecular disulfide bond, it is concluded that the reduction of and reformation of the intramolecular disulfide bond of LipL is essential to liberate free and fully active LipL. (+info)
Site-specific modification and RNA crosslinking of the RNA-binding domain of PKR.
RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is an interferon-induced, RNA-activated enzyme that phosphorylates and inhibits the function of the translation initiation factor eIF-2. PKR is activated in vitro by binding RNA molecules with extensive duplex structure. To further define the nature of the RNA regulation of PKR, we have prepared and characterized site-specifically modified proteins consisting of the PKR 20 kDa RNA-binding domain (RBD). Here we show that the two cysteines found naturally in this domain can be altered by site-directed mutagenesis without loss of RNA binding affinity or the RNA-regulated kinase activity. Introduction of cysteine residues at other sites in the PKR RBD allows for site-specific modification with thiol-selective reagents. PKR RBD mutants reacted selectively with a maleimide to introduce a photoactivatable cross-linking aryl azide at three different positions in the protein. RNA crosslinking efficiency was found to be dependent on the amino acid modified, suggesting differences in access to the RNA from these positions in the protein. One of the amino acid modifications that led to crosslinking of the RNA is located at a residue known to be an autophosphorylation site, suggesting that autophosphorylation at this site could influence the RNA binding properties of PKR. The PKR RBD conjugates described here and other similar reagents prepared via these methods are applicable to future studies of PKR-RNA complexes using techniques such as photocrosslinking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and affinity cleaving. (+info)