Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.
Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. (+info)
Promoting interaction during sociodramatic play: teaching scripts to typical preschoolers and classmates with disabilities.
We investigated the effects of teaching sociodramatic scripts on subsequent interaction among three triads, each containing 2 typical children and 1 child with autistic characteristics. The same type and rate of teacher prompts were implemented throughout structured play observations to avoid the confounding effects of script training and teacher prompting. After learning the scripts, all children demonstrated more frequent theme-related social behavior. These improvements in social-communicative interaction were replicated with the training of three sociodramatic scripts (i.e., pet shop, carnival, magic show) according to a multiple baseline design. These effects were maintained during the training of successive scripts and when the triads were reconstituted to include new but similarly trained partners. Results provided support for the inclusion of systematic training of scripts to enhance interaction among children with and without disabilities during sociodramatic play. (+info)
Mothers' behavior modifications during pretense and their possible signal value for toddlers.
An important issue for understanding early cognition is why very young children's real-world representations do not get confused by pretense events. One possible source of information for children is the pretender's behaviors. Pretender behaviors may vary systematically across real and pretend scenarios, perhaps signaling to toddlers to interpret certain events as not real. Pretender behaviors were examined in 2 experiments in which mothers were asked both to pretend to have a snack and really to have a snack with their 18-month-olds. Episodes were analyzed for condition differences in verbal and nonverbal behaviors, including smiling, looking, laughter, and functional movements. Reliable differences were found across conditions for several variables. In a 3rd experiment, children's apparent understanding of pretense in relation to their mothers' behaviors was examined, and significant associations were found with some of the mothers' behavioral changes but not others. This work provides a first inroad into the issue of how children learn to interpret pretense acts as pretense. (+info)
Returning to the Alder Hey report and its reporting: addressing confusions and improving inquiries.
The Royal Liverpool Children's Inquiry investigated the circumstances leading to the removal, retention, and disposal of human tissue, including children's organs, at the Royal Liverpool Children's NHS Trust (the Alder Hey Hospital). It recommended changes to procedures for obtaining consent for postmortems and retaining organs and tissues for research or education. However, the report contains five areas of confusion. Firstly, it allowed the cultural and historical traditions of horror over the use and misuse of body parts to suffuse the logical analysis of past wrongs and future rights. Secondly, it makes an inappropriate conflation between seeking redress for past wrongs and shaping future policy. Thirdly, the report takes a muddled stance over the value of bodily integrity at burial. Fourthly, the report is inconsistent over the justification for future organ and tissue collections. Fifthly, the notion of "respect" is used with troublesome looseness. The extent to which subsequent policy work has furthered the search for greater ethical clarity over these difficult issues is discussed, together with reflection on three particular improvements that could be made to the process of such an inquiry. (+info)
OBJECTIVE: To examine the references to Cinderella in medical literature. DESIGN: Analysis of papers published in the past 50 years that mention Cinderella. RESULTS: The trend for use of Cinderella as a metaphor in medical publications is increasing exponentially. Five separate themes emerged: neglect, identity, transformation, exhaustion, and the mixed metaphor. CONCLUSIONS: The medical use of the Cinderella fable is growing in popularity. (+info)
Diagnoses made in a secondary care "fits, faints, and funny turns" clinic.
AIMS: To investigate the diagnoses made for children referred to a "fits, faints, and funny turns" clinic. METHODS: Prospective study of 380 children referred to a dedicated secondary care clinic over an eight year period. RESULTS: Twenty three per cent of children were given a final diagnosis of one of the childhood epilepsies, with 48% of these having a specific epilepsy syndrome. Syncope was the commonest cause of a non-epileptic event (syncope and reflex anoxic seizures comprised 100/238, 42%) but there were a wide variety of other causes. Fifty three events (14%) were unclassified and managed without a diagnostic label or treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In children with funny turns referred to secondary care, the diagnostic possibilities are numerous; among non-epileptic events, syncopes predominate. The majority do not have epilepsy. Unclassifiable events with no clear epileptic or non-epileptic cause are common and can be safely managed expectantly. (+info)
Mechanisms of spontaneous confabulations: a strategic retrieval account.
The 'temporality' hypothesis of confabulation posits that confabulations are true memories displaced in time, while the 'strategic retrieval' hypothesis suggests a general retrieval failure of which temporal confusion is a common symptom. Four confabulating patients with rupture of an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm, eight non-confabulating ACoA controls and 16 normal controls participated in three experiments designed to test the two hypotheses. In Experiment 1, participants were tested on two continuous recognition tasks, one requiring temporal context distinctions, previously shown to be sensitive to confabulation and another that only requires content distinctions. Both manipulations were sensitive to confabulation, but not specific to it. Temporal context and content confusions (TCCs and CCs) can be explained as failures to make fine-grained distinctions within memory. In Experiment 2, free recall of semantic narratives that require strategic retrieval but are independent of temporal context was used to induce confabulations associated with remote memory, acquired before the onset of amnesia. Confabulators produced significantly more errors. Thus, when retrieval demands are equated, confabulations can be induced in the absence of temporal confusions. Only confabulators conflated semantic content from different remote semantic narratives and introduced idiosyncratic content, suggesting that qualitatively different mechanisms are responsible for distortions due to normal memory failure and for confabulation. Lesion analyses revealed that damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex is sufficient for temporal context errors to occur, but additional orbitofrontal damage is crucial for spontaneous confabulation. In Experiment 3, we tested whether failure in memory monitoring is crucial for confabulation. Recognition of details from semantic and autobiographical narratives was used to minimize the initiation and search components of strategic retrieval. Only confabulators made more false alarms on both tasks, endorsed even highly implausible lures related to autobiographical events and were indiscriminately confident about their choices. These findings support a strategic retrieval account of confabulation of which monitoring is a critical component. Post-retrieval monitoring has at least two components: one is early, rapid and pre-conscious and the other is conscious and elaborate. Failure of at least the former is necessary and sufficient for confabulation. Other deficits, including TCC and CC, may be required for spontaneous confabulations to arise. The confluence of different sub-components of strategic retrieval would determine the content of confabulation and exacerbate its occurrence. (+info)
Sexual desire and linguistic analysis: a comparison of sexually-abused and non-abused women.
Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. (+info)