Technology assessment and requirements analysis: a process to facilitate decision making in picture archiving and communications system implementation.
In a time of decreasing resources, managers need a tool to manage their resources effectively, support clinical requirements, and replace aging equipment in order to ensure adequate clinical care. To do this successfully, one must be able to perform technology assessment and capital equipment asset management. The lack of a commercial system that adequately performed technology needs assessment and addressed the unique needs of the military led to the development of an in-house Technology Assessment and Requirements Analysis (TARA) program. The TARA is a tool that provides an unbiased review of clinical operations and the resulting capital equipment requirements for military hospitals. The TARA report allows for the development of acquisition strategies for new equipment, enhances personnel management, and improves and streamlines clinical operations and processes. (+info)
The costs of hospital services: a case study of Evangelical Lutheran Church hospitals in Tanzania.
The health care systems of many developing countries are facing a severe crisis. Problems of financing services leads to high patient fees which make institutions of Western health care unaffordable for the majority of the rural poor. The conflict between sustainability and affordability of the official health care system challenges both local decision-makers and health management consultants. Decisions must be made soon so that the existing health care systems can survive. However, these decisions must be based on sound data, especially on the costs of health care services. The existing accounting systems of most hospitals in developing countries do not provide decision-makers with these data. Costs are generally underestimated. The leadership of the 16 hospitals of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania is currently analyzing how the existing health care services should be restructured. Therefore, reliable estimates of the costs of hospitals services are required. A survey on 'Costing of health services of the Evang. Luth. Church in Tanzania' was prepared, which summarizes the results of seven months of field investigations in Lutheran hospitals. The major findings are that the costs of providing adequate services are much higher than expected. The most important factors determining these costs are the administrative efficiency of the hospital and the scope of services offered. The paper closes with some recommendations on how to improve the services in order to make them both affordable for the rural poor and financially sustainable for the Church. It is concluded that even the best improvement of technical efficiency will not safeguard the survival of the hospital-based health care services of the Lutheran Church in Tanzania. These findings call for a reallocation of health care resources to lower levels of the health care pyramid. (+info)
Coated bedpans: their cleaning and disinfection.
This paper reports on tests of cleaning and disinfection of stainless steel bedpans which have been coated with either a silicone grease or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The coatings were applied manually using an aerosol spray (silicone grease and PTFE), and by an industrial process (PTFE). Soils used comprised (i) British Standard Soil (B.S., 1966), (ii) human serum albumin labelled with technetium-99m (HSA-Tc), and (iii) a suspension of Streptococcus faecalis in broth. Tests of cleaning and disinfection were carried out in automatic washing and steam disinfector machines. Results show that aerosol spraying impairs the cleaning process but that bedpans coated by the industrial process with PTFE are superior to uncoated bedpans. (+info)
Medicare program; prospective payment system for hospital outpatient services: revisions to criteria to define new or innovative medical devices, drugs, and biologicals eligible for pass-through payments and corrections to the criteria for the grandfather provision for certain Federally Qualified Health Centers. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Interim final rule with comment period.
This interim final rule with comment period changes one criterion and postpones the effective date for two other criteria that a new device, drug, or biological must meet in order for its cost to be considered "not significant" for purposes of determining its eligibility for transitional pass-through payments. It also changes the transitional pass-through payment policy to include new single use medical devices that come in contact with human tissue and that are surgically implanted or inserted in a patient whether or not the devices remain with the patient after the patient is released from the hospital outpatient department. These policies represent a departure from those presented in the April 7, 2000 Federal Register final rule with comment period entitled, "Prospective Payment System for Hospital Outpatient Services." This interim final rule with comment period also corrects a trigger date for grandfathering of provider-based Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) to conform with the intent not to disrupt existing FQHCs with longstanding provider-based treatment that we discussed in the April 2000 final rule. Under the criteria in the April 2000 final rule with comment period, FQHCs are treated as departments of a provider without regard to the criteria for provider-based status in that document if they meet other criteria and were designated as FQHCs before 1995. Under this correction, facilities that meet those other criteria and were designated as FQHCs or "look-alikes" on or before April 7, 2000 would continue to be treated as provider-based. In addition, we are clarifying how the requirement for prior notice to beneficiaries is to be applied in emergency situations. Also, we are clarifying the protocols for off-campus departments in emergency situations. (+info)
Biofilms and device-associated infections.
Microorganisms commonly attach to living and nonliving surfaces, including those of indwelling medical devices, and form biofilms made up of extracellular polymers. In this state, microorganisms are highly resistant to antimicrobial treatment and are tenaciously bound to the surface. To better understand and control biofilms on indwelling medical devices, researchers should develop reliable sampling and measurement techniques, investigate the role of biofilms in antimicrobial drug resistance, and establish the link between biofilm contamination and patient infection. (+info)
Survival of some medically important fungi on hospital fabrics and plastics.
Tests of the survival of Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., a Fusarium sp., a Mucor sp., and a Paecilomyces sp. on hospital fabrics and plastics indicated that viability was variable, with most fungi surviving at least 1 day but many living for weeks. These findings reinforce the need for appropriate disinfection and conscientious contact control precautions. (+info)
Biofilm formation: a clinically relevant microbiological process.
Microorganisms universally attach to surfaces and produce extracellular polysaccharides, resulting in the formation of a biofilm. Biofilms pose a serious problem for public health because of the increased resistance of biofilm-associated organisms to antimicrobial agents and the potential for these organisms to cause infections in patients with indwelling medical devices. An appreciation of the role of biofilms in infection should enhance the clinical decision-making process. (+info)
Medicare program--prospective payment system for hospital outpatient services: criteria for establishing additional pass-through categories for medical devices. Interim final rule with comment period.
This interim final rule with comment period sets forth the criteria the Secretary will use to establish new categories of medical devices eligible for transitional pass-through payments under Medicare's hospital outpatient prospective payment system. (+info)