Radiation synovectomy using 165Dy ferric-hydroxide and oxidative DNA damage in patients with different types of arthritis.
Radiation synovectomy is an effective treatment for chronic synovitis refractory to pharmacological treatment in patients with rheumatoid or seronegative arthritis. Concerns persist about possible radiation-induced cytogenetic damage after radiation synovectomy leading to recommendations to use this technique only in the elderly. Micronucleus (MN) frequency in lymphocytes and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) as an indicator of cellular oxidative DNA base damage are biomarkers of radiation-induced cytogenetic damage. The course of both biomarkers was studied in patients with different types of chronic synovitis undergoing radiation synovectomy with very short-lived 165Dy-ferric-hydroxide (DFH). METHODS: Radiation synovectomy of the knee was performed in 13 men and 12 women (mean age, 44+/-15 y) using a mean activity of 9.48+/-1.65 GBq 165Dy-DFH in 27 consecutive treatments. MN frequency in lymphocytes and urinary excretion of 8OHdG, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were assessed before and 4 (MN only) and 20 h after radiation synovectomy. RESULTS: Urinary excretion of 8OHdG in patients (in micromol/mol creatinine; pretreatment mean, 3.1+/-3.4; median, 2.27) was not significantly different from that in healthy volunteers (mean, 2.0+/-1.2; median, 1.87) and not altered by radiation synovectomy (post-treatment mean, 2.5+/-1.5; median, 2.04, NS). An increase in 8OHdG levels after radiation synovectomy of more than 1 SD was found in only 1 patient, who experienced leakage to the lymph nodes but who already had elevated urinary 8OHdG levels before treatment. The frequency of MN/500 binucleated cells (BNCs) was slightly lower in patients (pretreatment mean, 4.3+/-2.6; median, 4.25) than in healthy volunteers (mean, 5.4+/-2.3; median, 5.3) and did not significantly change after therapy, either (4-h post-treatment mean, 3.9+/-2.1, median, 3.8; 20-h post-treatment mean, 4.1+/-2, median 3.8 MN/500 BNC). In 22 of 27 treatments, no leakage to nontarget organs could be monitored, whereas leakage to the local lymph nodes and the liver was detected after 5 treatments. CONCLUSION: Radiation synovectomy using 165Dy-DFH causes no significant radiation burden to most patients as indicated by the absence of adverse changes in levels of biomarkers of cytogenetic damage and a low incidence of leakage. These data suggest that the risk of malignancy may not be elevated. (+info)
Studies of nutritional safety of some heavy metals in mice.
Heavy metals have been proposed as nutrient markers to allow the accurate determination of the time of passage, nutrient intake, or apparent utilization of multiple nutrients. In order to evaluate possible toxic effects of scandium, chromium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, dysprosium, terbium, thulium, and ytterbium oxides, and barium sulfate upon growth, general development, reproduction, and lactation, mice were fed different levels of these compounds for three generations. The amount of elements fed were 0,110, 100, and 1000 times the use amount. The use amounts were (in ppm2.) : Sc, 0.12; Cr, 0.02; La.0.40;; Sm. 0.80; Eu, 0.036:TB, 1.20; Dy, 1.20; Tm. 0.08; Tb, 0.12; and Ba, 0.008. The use amount was one-fifth of the concentration required for activation analysis. Mortality and morbidity were negligible. No consistent growth rate changes were observed; however, different groups showed different growth rates during different generations. The number of mice born showed no significant differences amoung treatment groups. Survival, growth rate, hematology, morphological development, maturation, reproduction, and lactational performance were comparable in mice fed the different levels of 10 heavy metal oxides to those mice fed the basal diet. (+info)
Interaction of lanthanide ions with bovine factor X and their use in the affinity chromatography of the venom coagulant protein of Vipera russelli.
The substitution of trivalent lanthanide ions for Ca(II) in the Ca(II)-DEPENDENT ACTIVATION OF BOVINE Factor X by the coagulant protein of Russell's viper venom was studied at pH 6.8. Factor X contains two high affinity metal binding sites which bind Gd(III), Sm(III), and Yb(III) with a Kd of about 4 X 10-7 M and four to six lower affinity metal binding sites which bind Gd(III), Sm(III) with a Kd of about 1.5 X 10-5M. In comparison, 1 mol of Factor X binds 2 mol of Ca(II) with a Kd of 3 X 10-4M and weakly binds many additional Ca(II) ions. No binding of Gd(III) to the venom protein was observed. Dy(III), Yb(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Eu(III), La(III), AND Nd(III) cannot substitute for Ca(II) in the Ca(II)-dependent activation of Factor X by the venom protein at pH 6.8. Kinetic data consistent with the models of competitive inhibition of Ca(II) by Nd(III) yielded a Ki of 1 to 4 X 10-6M. The substitution of lanthanide ions for Ca(II) to promote protein complex formation of Factor X-metal-venom protein without the activation of Factor X facilitated the purification of the coagulant protein from crude venom by affinity chromatography. Using a column containing Factor X covalently bound to agarose which was equilibrated in 10 mM Nd(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), or La(III), the coagulant protein was purified 10-fold in 40% yield from crude venom and migrated as a single band on gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. These data suggest that lanthanide ions complete with Ca(II) for the metal binding sites of Factor X and facilitate the formation of a nonproductive ternary complex of venom protein-Factor X-metal. Tb(III) fluorescence, with emission maxima at 490 and 545 nm, is enhanced 10,000-fold in the presence of Factor X. The study of the participation of an energy donor intrinsic to Factor X in energy transfer to Tb(III) may be useful in the characterization of the metal binding sites of Factor X. (+info)
Fast MRI of RF heating via phase difference mapping.
A method is presented for the rapid acquisition of temperature maps derived from phase difference maps. The temperature-dependent chemical shift coefficients (TDCSCs) of various concentrations of aqueous cobalt and dysprosium-based compounds were measured. The largest TDCSC calculated was for 100 mM DyEDTA, which had a TDCSC of -0.09 PPM/K; 160 mM CoCl2 had a TDCSC of -0.04 PPM/K. These temperature-dependent chemical shifts (TDCSs) result in phase changes in the MR signal with changing temperature. Agarose phantoms were constructed with each paramagnetic metal. A fast gradient-echo (FGRE) MR image was acquired to serve as the baseline image. A "test" MRI procedure was then performed on the phantom. Immediately afterwards, a second FGRE MR image was acquired, serving as the probing image. Proper image processing as a phase difference map between the probing image and the baseline image resulted in an image which quantitatively described the temperature increase of the phantom in response to a particular "test" imaging experiment. Applications of this technique in assessing the safety of pulse sequences and MR coils are discussed. (+info)
Simultaneous quadruple-label fluorometric immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, immunoreactive trypsin, and creatine kinase MM isoenzyme in dried blood spots.
We describe a quadruple-label fluorometric immunoassay for simultaneously measuring four analytes: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-OHP), immunoreactive trypsin (IRT), and creatine kinase MM (CK-MM). The assay is based on immunoreagents labeled with four different lanthanide ions (Eu3+, Tb3+, Sm3+, and Dy3+), on dissociative fluorescence enhancement applying the principle of co-fluorescence, and on time-resolved fluorometry. The monoclonal anti-alpha-TSH and anti-IRT antibodies and the polyclonal anti-CK-MM antibody were labeled with Eu3+, Sm3+, and Dy3+, respectively; 17 alpha-OHP was labeled with Tb3+. The assay was performed in microtitration strip wells coated with a mixture of monoclonal antibodies against beta-TSH, IRT, and CK-MM and a polyclonal goat anti-rabbit IgG for capture of the rabbit anti-17 alpha-OHP antibodies. After completion of the immunoreactions, the bound fractions of the lanthanides were dissociated into the co-fluorescence enhancement solution, creating highly fluorescent chelates. The four lanthanide-specific signals were subsequently measured in a time-resolved fluorometer. The detection limits of the assay were 0.1 mIU/L for TSH, 2 nmol/L for 17 alpha-OHP, 2 micrograms/L for IRT, and 4 U/L for CK-MM. (+info)
Evidence for a hydroxy-aluminium polymer (Al13) in synaptosomes.
The presence of the hydroxy-aluminium polymer (Al13-(OH)24O4(H2O)12(7+)) was noticed inside synaptosomes when synaptosomes were incubated with Al(NO3)3 at neutral pH values. Dysprosium nitrate (Dy(NO3)3)--a shift reagent--facilities the identification of the Al13 species distinctly inside the synaptosomes. 27Al NMR was used as a tool to detect the Al13 complex inside and outside the synaptosomes. (+info)
Dephytinization of a complementary food based on wheat and soy increases zinc, but not copper, apparent absorption in adults.
Complementary foods based on cereals may contain high amounts of phytic acid, which binds strongly to minerals and trace elements. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of dephytinization of a cereal-based complementary food on zinc and copper apparent absorption in adults. A dephytinized complementary food (<0.03 mg phytic acid/g) and one containing the native phytic acid concentration (4 mg/g) were labeled extrinsically with stable isotopes ((70)Zn and (65)Cu). Apparent zinc and copper absorption was based on fecal excretion of nonabsorbed labels in 9 adults, using a crossover design. Stable isotopes were quantified by thermal ionization MS. Apparent fractional zinc absorption was significantly higher (P = 0.005; Student's paired t test) from the dephytinized complementary food (34.6 +/- 8.0%; mean +/- SD) than from the complementary food with native phytic acid concentration (22.8 +/- 8.8%). Apparent fractional copper absorption did not differ (P = 0.167; 19.7 +/- 5.1% dephytinized vs. 23.7 +/- 8.1% native phytic acid). These results clearly demonstrate the beneficial effect of dephytinization of a complementary food on fractional absorption of zinc but not of copper in adults. The long-term nutritional benefits of dephytinization of complementary foods should be evaluated in young children. (+info)
Dysprosium as a nonabsorbable fecal marker in studies of zinc homeostasis.
BACKGROUND: Dysprosium is a nonabsorbable rare earth element that has had successful application as a marker for fecal excretion of unabsorbed zinc. OBJECTIVE: Our goals were 1) to evaluate the efficacy of administering dysprosium with all meals over several days as a method of determining the completeness of fecal collections, 2) to determine the similarity of gastrointestinal transit kinetics and excretion patterns of dysprosium and zinc tracer administered simultaneously over several days, and 3) to evaluate alternative methods of using the data for fecal excretion of orally administered zinc tracer and dysprosium to measure the fractional absorption of zinc. DESIGN: 70Zn and dysprosium were administered orally with all meals for 5 consecutive days to 7 healthy, free-living adults consuming a constant diet based on habitual intake. Additional tracers, 67Zn and 68Zn, were administered intravenously. Urine and fecal samples were collected during tracer administration and for 8 d after the last dose. Isotope ratios were measured in urine and feces, and total zinc and dysprosium were measured in fecal samples. RESULTS: The mean recovery of dysprosium was 101.3 +/- 2.4%. The zinc oral tracer and dysprosium had similar fecal excretory patterns; the correlation coefficient for 70Zn and dysprosium in fecal samples exceeded 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for each subject. Fractional zinc absorption measurements using various dysprosium methods correlated well (r > 0.95) with those from the fecal monitoring and dual-isotope-tracer ratio methods. CONCLUSION: Administration of dysprosium is a useful means of determining the completeness of fecal collections and of measuring zinc absorption. (+info)