Treatment of hydrocephalus secondary to cryptococcal meningitis by use of shunting.
Hydrocephalus can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cryptococcal meningitis if left untreated. Both ventriculoperitoneal and ventriculoatrial shunting have been used in persons with cryptococcosis complicated by hydrocephalus, but the indications for and complications, success, and timing of these interventions are not well known. To this end, we reviewed the clinical courses of 10 non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with hydrocephalus secondary to cryptococcal meningitis who underwent shunting procedures. Nine of 10 patients who underwent shunting had noticeable improvement in dementia and gait. Two patients required late revision of their shunts. Shunt placement in eight patients with acute infection did not disseminate cryptococcal infection into the peritoneum or bloodstream, nor did shunting provide a nidus from which Cryptococcus organisms proved difficult to eradicate. Shunting procedures are a safe and effective therapy for hydrocephalus in patients with cryptococcal meningitis and need not be delayed until patients are mycologically cured. (+info)
Link between the CSF shunt and achievement in adults with spina bifida.
OBJECTIVES: A few enterprising adults with shunt treated spina bifida live independently in the community, have a job in competitive employment, and drive to work in their own car. By contrast others with similar disability but lacking their motivation remain dependent on care and supervision. The aim of this study was to identify events in the history of their shunt which may have influenced their subsequent achievement. METHODS: Between June 1963 and January 1971 117 babies born in East Anglia with open spina bifida had their backs closed regardless of the severity of their condition. When reviewed in 1997 every case was ascertained. Sixty had died and the 57 survivors had a mean age of 30. These were assigned to two groups: achievers and non-achievers, according to their attainments in independence, employment, and use of a car. RESULTS: Of the 57 survivors nine had no shunt and eight of these were achievers. All were of normal intelligence (IQ>/=80) and only one was severely disabled. Of the 48 with shunts only 20 were achievers (OR 11.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-96.8). Lack of achievement in these 48 was associated with revisions of the shunt, particularly when revisions were performed after the age of 2. Sixteen patients had never required a revision and 11 (69%) were achievers; 10 had had revisions only during infancy and five (50%) were achievers; 22 had had revisions after their second birthday and only four (18%) were achievers (p<0.001). Elective revisions were not performed in this cohort and in 75% of patients revisions had been preceded by clear symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. CONCLUSION: Revisions of the shunt, particularly after the age of 2, are associated with poor long term achievement in adults with spina bifida. (+info)
Effect of cerebrospinal fluid shunting on experimental syringomyelia: magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings.
The histological changes associated with syringomyelia after reduction of the syrinx size were investigated after cerebrospinal fluid shunting in experimental syringomyelia in the rabbit. Five weeks after syringomyelia was induced by the injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna in Japanese white rabbits, ventriculosubgaleal shunting or syringoepidural shunting were performed. After 1 week magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histological examination were then carried out. Five of 11 shunted animals showed postoperative reduction of syrinx size on MR imaging. Grossly, some specimens showed cavity collapse and parenchymal healing, and others showed a small residual syrinx in the dorsal horn. The most dramatic histological changes occurred in the gray matter. Specimens with syrinx collapse showed rarefaction and tearing of the gray matter, with mild glial reaction. The edematous gray matter showed both degeneration and regeneration, with neuronal processes surrounded by edema fluid. Reactive astrocytes were observed mainly at the margin of the residual syrinx. Some astrocytic processes invested the extraaxonal space and gray matter lacked supportive tissue. Greater reduction of the syrinx after shunting operation was correlated with more regeneration and less degeneration, and the white matter was edematous and histological changes were milder. Syrinx shrinkage occurred after shunting in this experimental model of syringomyelia. The selective vulnerability of gray matter even after shunting may explain discrepancies between imaging findings and clinical features in this disease. The study supports the potential benefit from early treatment, considering the associated morphological findings of regeneration. (+info)
Specific patterns of cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.
OBJECTIVES: Eleven patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) were selected from an initial cohort of 43 patients. The patients with NPH fell into two distinctive subgroups: preshunt, group 1 (n=5) scored less than 24 on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and were classified as demented and group 2 (n=6) scored 24 or above on the MMSE and were classified as non-demented. METHODS: All patients were neuropsychologically assessed on two occasions: preshunt and then again 6 months postshunt. Group 1 completed the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Kendrick object learning test (KOLT). In addition to the MMSE and KOLT, group 2 completed further tasks including verbal fluency and memory and attentional tasks from the CANTAB battery. Nine of the 11 patients also underwent postshunt MRI. RESULTS: Group 1, who, preshunt, performed in the dementing range on both the MMSE and KOLT, showed a significant postoperative recovery, with all patients now scoring within the normal non-demented range. Group 2, although showing no signs of dementia according to the MMSE and KOLT either preshunt or postshunt, did show a specific pattern of impairment on tests sensitive to frontostriatal dysfunction compared with healthy volunteers, and this pattern remained postoperatively. Importantly, this pattern is distinct from that exhibited by patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Eight of the nine patterns of structural damage corresponded well to cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are useful for three main reasons: (1) they detail the structural and functional profile of impairment seen in NPH, (2) they demonstrate the heterogeneity found in this population and show how severity of initial cognitive impairment can affect outcome postshunt, and (3) they may inform and provide a means of monitoring the cognitive outcome of new procedures in shunt surgery. (+info)
Dandy-Walker syndrome successfully treated with cystoperitoneal shunting--case report.
A neonate presented with Dandy-Walker syndrome manifesting as a large posterior cranial fossa cyst, aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis, and elevation of the confluence of the sinuses but without hydrocephalus. A cystoperitoneal shunt was placed at one month after birth. The cyst diminished in size, and marked development of the cerebellar hemispheres and descent of the confluence of sinuses were observed, but not vermis development. The primary pathology of Dandy-Walker syndrome is posterior cranial fossa cyst formation due to passage obstruction in the fourth ventricle exit area and aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis. The first choice of treatment in patients with Dandy-Walker syndrome in whom the cerebral aqueduct is open is cystoperitoneal shunt surgery, regardless of the presence or absence of hydrocephalus. (+info)
Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography.
Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patterns: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p < 0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p < 0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (+info)
MR imaging of the hippocampus in normal pressure hydrocephalus: correlations with cortical Alzheimer's disease confirmed by pathologic analysis.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR studies have shown hippocampal atrophy to be a sensitive diagnostic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we measured the hippocampal volumes of patients with a clinical diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), a potentially reversible cause of dementia when shunted. Further, we examined the relationship between the hippocampal volumes and cortical AD pathologic findings, intracranial pressure, and clinical outcomes in cases of NPH. METHODS: We measured hippocampal volumes from 37 patients with a clinical diagnosis of NPH (27 control volunteers and 24 patients with AD). The patients with NPH underwent biopsy, and their clinical outcomes were followed for a year. RESULTS: Compared with those for control volunteers, the findings for patients with NPH included a minor left-side decrease in the hippocampal volumes (P < .05). Compared with those for patients with AD, the findings for patients with NPH included significantly larger hippocampi on both sides. Although not statistically significant, trends toward larger volumes were observed in patients with NPH who had elevated intracranial pressure, who benefited from shunting, and who did not display cortical AD pathologic findings. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of hippocampal volumes among patients with a clinical diagnosis of NPH have clear clinical implications, providing diagnostic discrimination from AD and possibly prediction of clinical outcome after shunting. (+info)
Indications for shunting in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting with dementia and brain atrophy (atypical idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus).
The indications for shunt operation in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus accompanied by brain atrophy (atypical idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: AINPH) were investigated in 25 patients who satisfied the diagnostic criteria and underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting. All patients had no apparent history of intra- or extracranial disease; dementia and gait disturbance as the main complaints; moderate to severe cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilatation and at least periventricular low density around the anterior horn on computed tomography; normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and filling of ventricles or cortical surface space with contrast medium at 24 hours on cisternography. The 15 male and 10 female patients were aged 47-83 years (mean 60.4 years). VP shunting was effective in 12 improved patients and not effective in 13 unimproved patients according to NPH grading. Pathological pressure wave on epidural pressure monitoring was observed in eight of 12 improved patients, but none of 13 unimproved patients. CSF outflow resistance was 35.33 +/- 11.16 mmHg/ml/min in improved patients and 9.12 +/- 3.51 mmHg/ml/min in unimproved patients. Preoperative serum alpha-1-antichymotrypsin value (alpha-1-ACT) was 42.02 +/- 8.64 mg/dl in improved patients and 61.72 +/- 11.03 mg/dl in unimproved patients. Alpha-1-ACT over 55 mg/dl occurred only in unimproved patients. Cerebral arteriovenous difference of oxygen content value (c-AVDO2) before and after surgery was 6.34 +/- 0.9 ml% and 5.91 +/- 0.78 ml% in improved patients and 4.75 +/- 1.85 ml% and 4.81 +/- 1.73 ml% in unimproved patients, respectively. The two cases with preoperative c-AVDO2 value over 8.5 ml% were both unimproved. Mean cerebral blood flow value before and after surgery was 23.51 +/- 4.20 ml/100 g/min and 45.22 +/- 8.11 ml/100 g/min in improved patients and 21.77 +/- 5.12 ml/100 g/min and 24.82 +/- 4.97 ml/100 g/min in unimproved patients, respectively. Cerebral atrophy in improved patients is caused by a cerebral circulation disturbance defined as a cerebral blood flow of penumbra or more due to cerebral arteriosclerosis, etc. A flow-chart of indications of shunt surgery for AINPH was prepared based on the results of the present study. (+info)