Delftia tsuruhatensis sp. nov., a terephthalate-assimilating bacterium isolated from activated sludge.
A terephthalate-assimilating bacterium was isolated from activated sludge collected from a domestic wastewater treatment plant in Japan by enrichment with terephthalate as sole carbon source. The isolate, designated strain T7(T), was a Gram-negative, short rod-shaped micro-organism. A phylogenetic study based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain T7(T) should be placed in the genus DELFTIA: A DNA-DNA hybridization value of 69 % was determined between strain T7(T) and Delftia acidovorans ATCC 15668(T). Major cellular fatty acids of strain T7(T) were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1) and C(18 : 1). Substantial amounts of cyclopropanoic acid (C(17 : 0)), 3-OH C(10 : 0), C(12 : 0), C(15 : 0) and C(14 : 0) were also detected. The total DNA G+C content of strain T7(T) was 66.2 mol%. Strain T7(T) could utilize the following compounds as carbon sources: acetamide, beta-alanine, citrate, D-fructose, glycerol, isobutyrate, isophthalate, D(-)-mannitol, maleate, malonate, phenylacetate, propionate, protocatechuate, terephthalate, D-tryptophan and L-tryptophan. Comparisons of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics with other known species belonging to the genus Delftia suggest that strain T7(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Delftia tsuruhatensis sp. nov. is proposed; strain T7(T) is the type strain (=IFO 16741(T)=ATCC BAA-554(T)). (+info)
Structure of haloacetate-catabolic IncP-1beta plasmid pUO1 and genetic mobility of its residing haloacetate-catabolic transposon.
The self-transmissible plasmid pUO1 from Delftia acidovorans strain B carries two haloacetate-catabolic transposons, TnHad1 and TnHad2, and the mer genes for resistance to mercury. The complete 67,066-bp sequence of pUO1 revealed that the mer genes were also carried by two Tn402/Tn5053-like transposons, Tn4671 and Tn4672, and that the pUO1 backbone regions shared 99% identity to those of the archetype IncP-1beta plasmid R751. Comparison of pUO1 with three other IncP-1beta plasmids illustrated the importance of transposon insertion in the diversity and evolution of this group of plasmids. Mutational analysis of the four outermost residues in the inverted repeats (IRs) of TnHad2, a Tn21-related transposon, revealed a crucial role of the second residue of its IRs in transposition. (+info)
Emended description of the species Lampropedia hyalina.
Three Lampropedia hyalina strains from different habitats were compared by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics. All strains form coccoid cells and have been reported to grow as square tablets of eight to 64 cells. However, two of these strains (ATCC 11041T and ATCC 43383) have apparently lost this ability, and the third strain may temporarily lose this capacity under certain cultivation conditions. The three strains showed only minor differences in metabolic characteristics: the main significant physiological difference was the ability to accumulate polyphosphate under alternating anaerobic-aerobic conditions found for DSM 15336. The three strains showed high similarity in fatty acid composition and only slight differences in the G + C content (63-67 mol%) and DNA-DNA reassociation (90-95 % relatedness). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses on these three strains and three Lampropedia hyalina 16S rRNA gene sequences deposited at NCBI showed that they are all very similar (> 98.8 %) and that they form a distinct group among the 'Betaproteobacteria', showing between 94.6 and 93 % 16S rRNA gene similarity to members of various genera such as Acidovorax, Aquaspirillum, Brachymonas, Comamonas, Delftia and Xenophilus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting betaproteobacteria on the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene level further supported the conclusion that all investigated strains are members of the 'Betaproteobacteria'. Two oligonucleotide probes were designed and successfully applied for culture-independent identification of Lampropedia hyalina by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization. (+info)
Isolation of soil bacteria adapted to degrade humic acid-sorbed phenanthrene.
The goal of these studies was to determine how sorption by humic acids affected the bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to PAH-degrading microbes. Micellar solutions of humic acid were used as sorbents, and phenanthrene was used as a model PAH. Enrichments from PAH-contaminated soils established with nonsorbed phenanthrene yielded a total of 25 different isolates representing a diversity of bacterial phylotypes. In contrast, only three strains of Burkholderia spp. and one strain each of Delftia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated from enrichments with humic acid-sorbed phenanthrene (HASP). Using [14C]phenanthrene as a radiotracer, we verified that only HASP isolates were capable of mineralizing HASP, a phenotype hence termed "competence." Competence was an all-or-nothing phenotype: noncompetent strains showed no detectable phenanthrene mineralization in HASP cultures, but levels of phenanthrene mineralization effected by competent strains in HASP and NSP cultures were not significantly different. Levels and rates of phenanthrene mineralization exceeded those predicted to be supported solely by the metabolism of phenanthrene in the aqueous phase of HASP cultures. Thus, competent strains were able to directly access phenanthrene sorbed by the humic acids and did not rely on desorption for substrate uptake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of (i) a selective interaction between aerobic bacteria and humic acid molecules and (ii) differential bioavailability to bacteria of PAHs sorbed to a natural biogeopolymer. (+info)
Chromosome-encoded gene cluster for the metabolic pathway that converts aniline to TCA-cycle intermediates in Delftia tsuruhatensis AD9.
Delftia tsuruhatensis AD9 was isolated as an aniline-degrading bacterium from the soil surrounding a textile dyeing plant. The gene cluster involved in aniline degradation was cloned from the total DNA of strain AD9 into Escherichia coli JM109. After shotgun cloning, two recombinant E. coli strains showing aniline oxidation activity or catechol meta-cleavage activity were obtained by simple plate assays. These strains contained 9.3 kb and 15.4 kb DNA fragments, respectively. Sequence analysis of the total 24.7 kb region revealed that this region contains a gene cluster (consisting of at least 17 genes, named tadQTA1A2BRD1C1D2C2EFGIJKL) responsible for the complete metabolism of aniline to TCA-cycle intermediates. In the gene cluster, the first five genes (tadQTA1A2B) and the subsequent gene (tadR) were predicted to encode a multi-component aniline dioxygenase and a LysR-type regulator, respectively, while the others (tadD1C1D2C2EFGIJKL) were expected to encode meta-cleavage pathway enzymes for catechol degradation. In addition, it was found that the gene cluster is surrounded by two IS1071 sequences, indicating that it has a class I transposon-like structure. PFGE and Southern hybridization analyses confirmed that the tad gene cluster is encoded on the chromosome of strain AD9 in a single copy. These results suggest that, in strain AD9, aniline is degraded via catechol through a meta-cleavage pathway by the chromosome-encoded tad gene cluster. The tad gene cluster showed significant similarity in nucleotide sequence and genetic organization to the plasmid-encoded aniline degradation gene cluster of Pseudomonas putida UCC22. (+info)
Molecular characterization of class 3 integrons from Delftia spp.
Two environmental strains, Delftia acidovorans C17 and Delftia tsuruhatensis A90, were found to carry class 3 integrons, which have seldom been reported and then only from pathogens in which they are associated with antibiotic resistance genes. The Delftia integrons comprised a highly conserved class 3 integrase gene, upstream and oppositely oriented from a set of three or four gene cassettes that encoded unidentified functions. The A90 integron had one more gene cassette than the C17 integron, but the two were otherwise the same; furthermore, they were located within regions of sequence identity in both strains and linked to chromosomal genes. A screen of other Delftia and related strains did not reveal the presence of additional class 3 integrons. The observations suggest that these integrons were horizontally transferred to Delftia as part of a larger region and reside as chromosomal elements that probably predate transposon dissemination, as has been proposed for certain class 1 integrons. (+info)
Improvement of amidase production by a newly isolated Delftia tsuruhatensis ZJB-05174 through optimization of culture medium.
The R-amidase production by a newly isolated strain of Delftia tsuruhatensis ZJB-05174 was optimized in this paper. Effects of factors such as carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inducers on amidase production were investigated. The medium composition was optimized using central composite designs and response surface analysis. The optimal medium components for enhanced amidase production were found to be as follows: glucose, 8.23 g/l; yeast extract, 11.59 g/l; 2,2-(R,S)-dimethylcyclopropane carboxamide, 1.76 g/l; NaCl, 1 g/l; KH2PO4, 1 g/l; and K2HPO4, 1 g/l. A maximum enzyme production of 528.21 U/l was obtained under the optimized conditions, which was 4.7 times higher than that obtained under initial conditions. (+info)
Delftia lacustris sp. nov., a peptidoglycan-degrading bacterium from fresh water, and emended description of Delftia tsuruhatensis as a peptidoglycan-degrading bacterium.