Patients' sera were divided into three portions when the initial gentamicin level was determined and were stored at -20, 4, and 25 degrees C in plastic or glass tubes. Gentamicin levels were repeated after 1 and 2 days of storage at the respective temperatures. There was no significant difference in gentamicin levels among portions, except those from a patient in renal failure with high serum concentrations of carbenicillin. (+info)
Preparation of labeled staphylococcal enterotoxin A with high specific activity.
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was labeled by the chloramine-T method with 125I to a specific activity of 68 to 300 muCi per mug of SEA and with 131I to specific activity of 8 to 218 muCi per mug of SEA. SEA was partially damaged and aggregated during the labeling and storage. The damage seemed not to be greatly dependent on the specific activity of labeled entertoxin. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis showed two antigenically active and three inactive components in the ascending part of the labeled enterotoxin peak during fractionation by gel chromatography. During storage at 4 degrees C, the antigenic activity of label decreased faster when labeling had been with 131I than when with 125I. The antigenic activity of labeled SEA was lowered remarkably in the ascending part of the protein peak. Greatest release of radioiodine during storage was in the same part of protein peak. According to these results, the most suitable label for radioimmunoassay is obtained from the descending part of protein peak. (+info)
The degradation of semisynthetic tritiated insulin by perfused mouse livers.
Semisynthetic [3H]insulin was stored under various conditions for up to 180 days and the stability of the insulin under these conditions was assessed. A sample that had been stored for 180 days was repurified and shown to be degraded at the same rate as native insulin by perfused mouse livers, even at low physiological concentrations. After perfusion, intact insulin could be separated from degradation products, and the radioactivity associated with the insulin fraction could be used to determine the percentage degradation. The initial rate of degradation of insulin was a linear function of concentration over the range 360pM-1.9nM. (+info)
The relationship between pH and concentrations of antioxidants and vasoconstrictors in local anesthetic solutions.
pH affects the efficacy of local anesthetics by determining the percentage of the lipid-soluble base form of the anesthetic available for diffusion and penetration of the nerve sheath. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between pH and the concentrations of antioxidant and vasoconstrictor in dental local anesthetic solutions over real-time and after accelerated aging. Several batches of lidocaine and mepivacaine with vasoconstrictors were tested. Results showed that, immediately upon receipt from the manufacturers, three batches were below the USP pH limit (pH 3.3), and two batches contained less than the minimum limit of vasoconstrictors (90%). Real-time tests on batches that were within normal limits revealed that solutions were stable past 4 yr. Accelerated aging tests revealed a strong correlation between a decrease in pH and loss of antioxidants and vasoconstrictors. In conclusion, a quality batch of local anesthetic should remain efficacious long past the manufacturer's stated shelf life; a batch that is less than optimal, or one that is exposed to environmental stresses, will degrade rapidly, and efficacy may be affected by decreases in pH and loss of vasoconstrictor. pH may be an inexpensive, readily available screening test for efficacy of local anesthetics. (+info)
Vaccine storage in the community: a study in central Italy.
Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunization programme, but in developed countries faulty procedures may occur more commonly than is generally believed. A survey was conducted in a health district in central Italy to assess the methods of vaccine transportation and storage. Of 52 primary vaccination offices inspected, 39 (76.5%) had a refrigerator for vaccine storage but only 17 (33.3%) kept records of received and stored doses. None of the seven main offices selected for monitoring had a maximum and minimum thermometer and none monitored the internal temperature of the refrigerator. Moreover, other faulty procedures, such as the storage of food and laboratory specimens in vaccine refrigerators and the storage of vaccines on refrigerator door shelves, indicated that the knowledge and practice of vaccine storage and handling were often inadequate. (+info)
Short report: evaluation of the potency and stability of a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Availability of a safe, immunogenic, and affordable vaccine would represent the best strategy for control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Stability in field conditions is a essential property for any candidate vaccine. The stability and immunogenicity of three different preparations (thimerosal-preserved, autoclaved, and lyophilized) of a killed Leishmania amazonensis vaccine were assessed using fresh products and after 12 months of storage at 4 degrees C. Autoclaving was associated with a time-dependent decrease in the immunogenicity of the vaccine, as measured by the leishmanin skin test and production of interferon-gamma. These findings are of importance in the decision of which preparation of candidate killed CL vaccines should move to phase III trials. (+info)
Sample preparation and storage can change arsenic speciation in human urine.
BACKGROUND: Stability of chemical speciation during sample handling and storage is a prerequisite to obtaining reliable results of trace element speciation analysis. There is no comprehensive information on the stability of common arsenic species, such as inorganic arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine, in human urine. METHODS: We compared the effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these arsenic species: temperature (25, 4, and -20 degrees C), storage time (1, 2, 4, and 8 months), and the use of additives (HCl, sodium azide, benzoic acid, benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride). HPLC with both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection techniques were used for the speciation of arsenic. RESULTS: We found that all five of the arsenic species were stable for up to 2 months when urine samples were stored at 4 and -20 degrees C without any additives. For longer period of storage (4 and 8 months), the stability of arsenic species was dependent on urine matrices. Whereas the arsenic speciation in some urine samples was stable for the entire 8 months at both 4 and -20 degrees C, other urine samples stored under identical conditions showed substantial changes in the concentration of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid. The use of additives did not improve the stability of arsenic speciation in urine. The addition of 0.1 mol/L HCl (final concentration) to urine samples produced relative changes in inorganic As(III) and As(V) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Low temperature (4 and -20 degrees C) conditions are suitable for the storage of urine samples for up to 2 months. Untreated samples maintain their concentration of arsenic species, and additives have no particular benefit. Strong acidification is not appropriate for speciation analysis. (+info)
BACKGROUND: Thrombelastograph analysis (TEG) is used to evaluate blood coagulation. Ideally, whole blood is immediately processed. If impossible, blood may be citrated and assessed after recalcification. No data describe the effect of such treatment and storage on TEG parameters. METHODS: Three studies were performed in 90 surgical patients. In 30 patients, blood was citrated (1:10, 0. 129 M) and recalcified (20 microl 2 M CaCl2 to 340 microl citrated blood), and TEG was performed with native blood and after recalcification after 0, 15, and 30 min of citrate storage. In another 30 patients, TEG was performed with citrated blood recalcified immediately and after 1-72 h storage. In a third study, thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and beta-thromboglobulin were measured (using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay tests) at corresponding time points. Data were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hocpaired t tests. RESULTS: TEG parameters were different in recalcified citrated blood compared with native blood (P < 0.05) and changed significantly during 30-min (P < 0.025) and 72-h (P < 0.001) citrate storage. TEG parameters measured between 1 and 8 h of citrate storage were stable. Thrombin-antithrombin complex and prothrombin fragment 1+2 values were not elevated in native blood. After 30 min of citrate storage a gradual thrombin activation was observed, as evidenced by increasing thrombin-antithrombin complex and prothrombin fragment 1+2 values (P < 0.05). beta-Thromboglobulin level was increased after 2 and 8 h of citrate storage (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of native blood yields the most reliable TEG results. Should immediate TEG processing not be possible, citrated blood may be used if recalcified after 1-8 h. (+info)