Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevention of cancer: the Black Churches United for Better Health project.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of the Black Churches United for Better Health project on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among rural African American church members in North Carolina. METHODS: Ten counties comprising 50 churches were pair matched and randomly assigned to either intervention or delayed intervention (no program until after the follow-up survey) conditions. A multicomponent intervention was conducted over approximately 20 months. A total of 2519 adults (77.3% response rate) completed both the baseline and 2-year follow-up interviews. RESULTS: The 2 study groups consumed similar amounts of fruits and vegetables at baseline. AT the 2-year follow-up, the intervention group consumed 0.85 (SE = 0.12) servings more than the delayed intervention group (P < .0001). The largest increases were observed among people 66 years or older (1 serving), those with education beyond high school (0.92 servings), those widowed or divorced (0.96 servings), and those attending church frequently (1.3 servings). The last improvement occurred among those aged 18 to 37 years and those who were single. CONCLUSIONS: The project was a successful model for achieving dietary change among rural African Americans. (+info)
Maintaining mammography adherence through telephone counseling in a church-based trial.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effectiveness of telephone counseling in a church-based mammography promotion intervention trial. METHODS: Thirty churches were randomized to telephone counseling and control conditions; telephone interview data were used in assessing intervention effects on mammography adherence. Separate analyses were conducted for baseline-adherent participants (maintaining adherence) and baseline-nonadherent participants (conversion to adherence). RESULTS: Year 1 follow-up data indicated that the telephone counseling intervention maintained mammography adherence among baseline-adherent participants and reduced the nonadherence rate from 23% to 16%. CONCLUSIONS: Partnerships between the public health and faith communities are potentially effective conduits to promote maintenance of widely endorsed health behaviors such as regular cancer screening. (+info)
The paediatrician and the rabbi.
OBJECTIVES: During recent decades, rabbis in Israel have been playing an increasing role in the consultation of patients or their families on medical issues. The study was performed to determine the attitude of physicians to rabbinical consultation by parents of sick children for purposes of basic medical decision making. DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was prepared which contained questions regarding physicians' reactions to specific medical situations as well as their demographic data. The study participants included all the available physicians who were employed in the study period at one tertiary medical centre in Israel, which is not associated with any religious organisation. The questionnaire was presented personally to all of the physicians who were available for the study. RESULTS: Between 63% and 77% of the respondents were accepting of rabbinical consultation in regard to medical decisions. Nevertheless, in cases of divergence from accepted medical practice and in emergencies, almost all stated they would take measures to resist the rabbi's advice. This attitude did not correlate with the physician's age, religious status or experience in medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Israeli physicians respect rabbis' suggestions in the area of medical decision making, though they would not let a rabbi's advice interfere with their decisions if they believed the rabbi's opinion went against medical need. In order to prevent an untoward effect of the rabbinical involvement in medicine, rules should be set to establish norms for rabbi-physician collaboration. (+info)
Role of Black churches in health promotion programs: lessons from the Los Angeles Mammography Promotion in Churches Program.
OBJECTIVES: This article assesses pastor-level factors that affect the successful recruitment and implementation of community-based health promotion programs in Black churches. METHODS: Semistructured interviews with 16 pastors of Black churches were analyzed for content. RESULTS: We found that although the involvement of Black pastors in an array of secular activities makes them open to participate in health programs, their overcommitment to other issues can negatively influence their ability to participate. Second, although Black pastors appreciate being included in and benefiting from health research, minorities' history of being underserved and exploited can lead to suspiciousness and reluctance to participate. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that those interested in developing church-based health programs in the Black community must be attuned to how the same factors can both facilitate and hinder a program's development. (+info)
Alternative mental health services: the role of the black church in the South.
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the extent to which churches in the South were providing mental health and social services to congregations and had established linkages with formal systems of care. METHODS: A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey was conducted with pastors from 269 Southern churches. RESULTS: Black churches reported providing many more services than did White churches, regardless of urban or rural location. Few links between churches and formal provider systems were found, irrespective of the location--urban or rural--or racial composition of the churches. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed in terms of the potential for linking faith communities and formal systems of care, given the centrality of the Black church in historical context. (+info)
Patterns and correlates of contacting clergy for mental disorders in the United States.
OBJECTIVE: To present nationally representative data on the part played by clergy in providing treatment to people with mental disorders in the United States. DATA SOURCES: The National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), a nationally representative general population survey of 8,098 respondents ages 15-54. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. DATA COLLECTION: A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess DSM-III-R mental disorders. Reports were obtained on age of onset of disorders, age of first seeking treatment, and treatment in the 12 months before interview with each of six types of professionals (clergy, general medical physicians, psychiatrists, other mental health specialists, human services providers, and alternative treatment providers). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One-quarter of those who ever sought treatment for mental disorders did so from a clergy member. Although there has been a decline in this proportion between the 1950s (31.3 percent) and the early 1990s (23.5 percent), the clergy continue to be contacted by higher proportions than psychiatrists (16.7 percent) or general medical doctors (16.7 percent). Nearly one-quarter of those seeking help from clergy in a given year have the most seriously impairing mental disorders. The majority of these people are seen exclusively by the clergy, and not by a physician or mental health professional. CONCLUSIONS: The clergy continue to play a crucial role in the U.S. mental health care delivery system. However, interventions appear to be needed to ensure that clergy members recognize the presence and severity of disorders, deliver therapies of sufficient intensity and quality, and collaborate appropriately with health care professionals. (+info)
Research expectations among African American church leaders in the PRAISE! project: a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the expectations and satisfaction of pastors and lay leaders regarding a research partnership in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. METHODS: Telephone and self-administered print surveys were administered to 78 pastors and lay leaders. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 pastors after study completion. RESULTS: The combined survey response rate was 65%. Research expectations included honest and frequent communication, sensitivity to the church environment, interaction as partners, and results provided to the churches. Satisfaction with the research partnership was high, but so was concern about the need for all research teams to establish trust with church partners. CONCLUSIONS: Pastors and lay leaders have high expectations regarding university obligations in research partnerships. An intervention study based on CBPR methods was able to meet most of these expectations. (+info)
Moving beyond attitudinal barriers: understanding African Americans' support for organ and tissue donation.
PURPOSE: African Americans are disproportionately represented among individuals in need of an organ transplant, due in part to low donation rates in this population. The research literature has focused on attitudinal barriers to donation; however, the current study explores individual experiences and values that contribute to supportive attitudes toward organ and tissue donation. PROCEDURES: Focus group participants were 26 African-American clergymen and 42 African-American parishioners recruited from seven Christian churches in the metro Atlanta area. FINDINGS: Although a large number of participants had previous exposure to organ and tissue donation and transplantation, the majority of these experiences were negative, and participants felt a general fear and lack of knowledge about the process of donation and transplantation. Despite these negative experiences, respondents reported personal values (e.g., the desire to help others and acceptance of group responsibility) and religious values (e.g., the desire to carry out God's will and to have faith in God) that contribute to supportive attitudes toward organ and tissue donation. CONCLUSION: An understanding of supportive attitudes toward donation may help improve the development of effective culturally sensitive intervention messages targeting the African-American religious community with the ultimate goal of increasing the pool of organs available for transplantation. (+info)