Identification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a variant of the Ibaraki virus from naturally infected cattle and aborted fetuses in Japan. (1/150)

One hundred fourteen field isolates of the Ibaraki virus (IBAV), a member of the epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2), were isolated from blood samples of affected and apparently healthy cattle and Culicoides biting midges and from blood samples of dams and internal organs of aborted fetuses during an outbreak of Ibaraki disease in the southern part of Japan in 1997. In this outbreak, 242 cattle showed typical symptoms of the disease, and several hundred dams had miscarriages or stillbirths. The viruses that induced typical Ibaraki disease and reproductive problems among cattle were identical and were antigenically closely related to but distinct from previous isolates of IBAV and EHDV-2. The virus was considered to be a putative agent of this outbreak. Reverse transcription-PCR based on segment 3 of the RNA genome of EHDV-2 and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR products were conducted to compare the genomes of the viruses. The results suggested that the virus isolated in 1997 was a variant of IBAV and might be exotic.  (+info)

Observations on the epidemiology of ephemeral fever in Kenya. (2/150)

Ephemeral fever antibody was found in domestic cattle in Kenya across a wide range of ecological zones, from highland forests and grasslands to desert and semidesert thorn scrub. Antibody was found in several species of game animals, notably waterbuck and buffalo, where over 50% of the samples showed antibody to EF. Evidence was obtained to show that the virus had been cycling in these wild ruminant populations between epizootics in domestic cattle.  (+info)

A new Culicoides from the Amazonian region, Brazil (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (3/150)

A new Neotropical species of biting midge Culicoides (Haematomyidium), C. kampa Felippe-Bauer, Veras & Castellon, is described and illustrated based on female specimens from the Amazonian Region.  (+info)

A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (4/150)

A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.  (+info)

RGD tripeptide of bluetongue virus VP7 protein is responsible for core attachment to Culicoides cells. (5/150)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Culicoides species to vertebrate hosts. The double-capsid virion is infectious for Culicoides vector and mammalian cells, while the inner core is infectious for only Culicoides-derived cells. The recently determined crystal structure of the BTV core has revealed an accessible RGD motif between amino acids 168 to 170 of the outer core protein VP7, whose structure and position would be consistent with a role in cell entry. To delineate the biological role of the RGD sequence within VP7, we have introduced point mutations in the RGD tripeptide and generated three recombinant baculoviruses, each expressing a mutant derivative of VP7 (VP7-AGD, VP7-ADL, and VP7-AGQ). Each expressed mutant protein was purified, and the oligomeric nature and secondary structure of each was compared with those of the wild-type (wt) VP7 molecule. Each mutant VP7 protein was used to generate empty core-like particles (CLPs) and were shown to be biochemically and morphologically identical to those of wt CLPs. However, when mutant CLPs were used in an in vitro cell binding assay, each showed reduced binding to Culicoides cells compared to wt CLPs. Twelve monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated using purified VP7 or CLPs as a source of antigen and were utilized for epitope mapping with available chimeric VP7 molecules and the RGD mutants. Several MAbs bound to the RGD motif on the core, as shown by immunogold labeling and cryoelectron microscopy. RGD-specific MAb H1.5, but not those directed to other regions of the core, inhibited the binding activity of CLPs to the Culicoides cell surface. Together, these data indicate that the RGD motif present on BTV VP7 is responsible for Culicoides cell binding activity.  (+info)

Simuliid blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and ceratopogonid midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in northern Argentina. (6/150)

Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively nonpathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.  (+info)

Occurrence of genetic drift and founder effect during quasispecies evolution of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of bluetongue virus upon passage between sheep, cattle, and Culicoides sonorensis. (7/150)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of an insect-transmitted virus infection of ruminants that occurs throughout much of the world. Individual gene segments differ between field strains of BTV; thus, we hypothesized that key viral genes undergo genetic drift during alternating passage of BTV in its ruminant and insect hosts. To test this hypothesis, variation in the consensus sequence and quasispecies heterogeneity of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of a plaque-purified strain of BTV serotype 10 was determined during alternating infection of vector Culicoides sonorensis and a sheep and calf. Consensus sequences were determined after reverse transcriptase-nested PCR amplification of viral RNA directly from ruminant blood and homogenized insects, and quasispecies heterogeneity was determined by the sequencing of clones derived from directly amplified viral RNA. Comparison of these sequences to those of the original BTV inoculum used to initiate the cycle of BTV infection demonstrated, for the first time, that individual BTV gene segments evolve independently of one another by genetic drift in a host-specific fashion, generating quasispecies populations in both ruminant and insect hosts. Furthermore, a unique viral variant was randomly ingested by C. sonorensis insects that fed on a sheep with low-titer viremia, thereby fixing a novel genotype by founder effect. Thus, we conclude that genetic drift and founder effect contribute to diversification of individual gene segments of field strains of BTV.  (+info)

Rift Valley fever outbreak, Mauritania, 1998: seroepidemiologic, virologic, entomologic, and zoologic investigations. (8/150)

A Rift Valley fever outbreak occurred in Mauritania in 1998. Seroepidemiologic and virologic investigation showed active circulation of the Rift Valley fever virus, with 13 strains isolated, and 16% (range 1.5%-38%) immunoglobulin (Ig) M-positivity in sera from 90 humans and 343 animals (sheep, goats, camels, cattle, and donkeys). One human case was fatal.  (+info)