Distinguishing right from left colon by the pattern of gene expression.
Distinct epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) based on their anatomical location suggest different risk factors and pathways of transformation associated with proximal and distal colon carcinogenesis. These differences may reflect distinct biological characteristics of proximal and distal colonic mucosa, acquired in embryonic or postnatal development, that determine a differential response to uniformly distributed environmental factors. Alternatively, the differences in the epidemiology of proximal and distal CRCs could result from the presence of different procarcinogenic factors in the ascending versus descending colon, acting on cells with either similar or distinct biological characteristics. We applied cDNA microarray technology to explore the possibility that mucosal epithelium from adult proximal and distal colon can be distinguished by their pattern of gene expression. In addition, gene expression was studied in fetal (17-24 weeks gestation) proximal and distal colon. More than 1000 genes were expressed differentially in adult ascending versus descending colon, with 165 genes showing >2-fold and 49 genes showing >3-fold differences in expression. With almost complete concordance, biopsies of adult colonic epithelium can be correctly classified as proximal or distal by gene expression profile. Only 87 genes were expressed differently in ascending and descending fetal colon, indicating that, although anatomically relevant differences are already established in embryonic colon, additional changes in gene expression occur in postnatal development. (+info)
Effects of nifedipine and nickel on plateau potentials generated in submucosal interstitial cells distributed in the mouse proximal colon.
The effects of nifedipine and nickel ions (Ni2+), known inhibitors of L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca-channels respectively, were investigated on plateau potentials recorded from submucosal interstitial cells distributed in the mouse proximal colon. Plateau potentials were generated at a frequency of about 15 times min(-1) and were formed of two components. The primary component had an initial fast rate of rise with a transient potential (rate of rise, 130 mV/s; peak amplitude, 35 mV) and was followed by a secondary plateau component with a sustained potential (amplitude, 25 mV; duration, 2.6 s). Each cell from which recordings were made was injected with neurobiotin. Subsequent morphological examination with a confocal microscope indicated successful visualization of injected cells only in the presence of 18beta-glycylrhetinic acid (an inhibitor of gap junctional connections), suggesting that these cells were dye-coupled with surrounding cells. The cells injected with neurobiotin exhibited an oval-shaped cell body with bipolar processes and were distributed in the submucosal layer, suggesting that they were submucosal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-SM). The plateau potentials were not altered by 0.01 microM nifedipine, but were reduced in duration by 0.1 microM nifedipine, and abolished by 1 microM nifedipine. The rate of rise of plateau potentials, but not their amplitude, was reduced by Ni2+ (> 10 microM), with no significant alteration of the membrane potential. In the presence of 100 microM Ni2+, the plateau potentials were changed to a triangular form. Thus, the plateau potentials were formed by two types of voltage-gated channel current: the initial component was produced by a Ni2+-sensitive channel current and the plateau component by a nifedipine-sensitive current. The possible involvement of two different types of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels in the generation of submucosal pacemaker potentials was discussed. (+info)
Mechanisms involved in carbachol-induced Ca(2+) sensitization of contractile elements in rat proximal and distal colon.
1. Mechanisms involved in Ca(2+) sensitization of contractile elements induced by the activation of muscarinic receptors in membrane-permeabilized preparations of the rat proximal and distal colon were studied. 2. In alpha-toxin-permeabilized preparations from the rat proximal and distal colon, Ca(2+) induced a rapid phasic and subsequent tonic component. After Ca(2+)-induced contraction reached a plateau, guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and carbachol (CCh) in the presence of GTP further contracted preparations of both the proximal and distal colon (Ca(2+) sensitization). Y-27632, a rho-kinase inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca(2+) sensitization more significantly in the proximal colon than in the distal colon. 3. Y-27632 at 10 microm had no effect on Ca(2+)-induced contraction or slightly inhibited phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-induced Ca(2+) sensitization in either proximal or distal colon. Chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca(2+) sensitization in the distal colon, but not in the proximal colon. The component of Ca(2+) sensitization that persisted after the chelerythrine treatment was completely inhibited by Y-27632. 4. In beta-escin-permeabilized preparations of the proximal colon, C3 exoenzyme completely inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca(2+) sensitization, but PKC(19-31) did not. In the distal colon, C3 exoenzyme abolished GTP-induced Ca(2+) sensitization. It inhibited CCh-induced sensitization by 50 % and the remaining component was inhibited by PKC(19-31). 5. These results suggest that both protein kinase C and rho pathways in parallel mediate the Ca(2+) sensitization coupled to activation of muscarinic receptors in the rat distal colon, whereas the rho pathway alone mediates this action in the proximal colon. (+info)
Proximal versus distal hyperplastic polyps of the colorectum: different lesions or a biological spectrum?
BACKGROUND: Because of their suggested link with microsatellite instability high colorectal cancers, right sided hyperplastic polyps (HPs) may differ from their distally located counterparts. This is highlighted by the recognition of a variant HP, termed sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), which predominates in the proximal colon. HPs displaying the morphological features now associated with SSAs have been shown to have altered expression of "cancer associated" markers, but no studies have investigated whether this is dependent on anatomical location of the polyps. AIMS: To evaluate morphological and functional features in right versus left sided HPs from patients without colorectal cancer with the aim of identifying distinguishing characteristics. METHODS: HPs originating in the proximal and distal colorectum were histochemically and immunohistochemically stained to evaluate a panel of markers related to proliferation and differentiation. In addition, a series of morphological features was evaluated for each polyp. RESULTS: Crypt serration, crypt dilatation, and horizontal crypt growth were more common among HPs from the right side, whereas histochemical factors including mucin changes, global methylation status, and expression of carcinoembryonic antigen were not significantly different. An age disparity was also seen between patients with right versus left sided lesions, with patients with right sided lesions being an average of more than 10 years younger than those with left sided lesions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that right and left sided HPs differ mainly in terms of growth regulation rather than cellular differentiation, implying that these lesions belong to a continuous spectrum of serrated polyps that differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively. (+info)
A rare case of ascending colon actinomycosis mimicking cancer.
BACKGROUND: Actinomycosis is a rare inflammatory disease caused by an anaerobic bacterium that can rarely affect the large intestine. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a rare case of a cecum and ascending colon actinomycosis in a 72 years old woman, mimicking clinically a malignant inflammatory tumor of the right colon. The patient complained of right lower quadrant pain. Although our first thought was a peri-appendiceal abscess, CT scan suggested a right colon tumor. The patient underwent a right colectomy and the histological examination of the specimen revealed colon actinomycosis. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnosis in colon actinomycosis is difficult to achieve. Treatment of choice is antibiotics administration. A review of the possible pathogenesis and therapeutic modalities is also presented. (+info)
Treatment of resistant distal intestinal obstruction syndrome with a modified antegrade continence enema procedure.
We report a case of a patient with CF who had a long history of recurrent distal intestinal obstruction syndrome. She had been treated with conventional treatment including gastrografin, n-acetyl cysteine, Klean prep and Picolax. She underwent a modified antegrade continence enema procedure. She currently irrigates her conduit every 2-3 days. She has had no further symptoms of distal intestinal obstruction syndrome. (+info)
The retroperitoneal surface in distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinoma: the Cinderella surgical margin?
BACKGROUND: Mesorectal margin tumour involvement is a predictor of local recurrence in rectal carcinoma and an indication for postoperative radiotherapy in suitable patients. However, the prevalence of non-peritonealised surgical margin involvement in ascending colon carcinoma is unknown. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that retroperitoneal surgical margin (RSM) tumour involvement occurs in distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinoma. METHODS/RESULTS: One hundred right hemicolectomy specimens, removed for adenocarcinoma of the caecum or proximal ascending colon, were studied. During routine specimen dissection, at least one additional tissue block was taken to include the tumour and the RSM. The tumour distance from the RSM was recorded. RSM tumour involvement was present in seven cases (7%). Direct (non-nodal) RSM tumour involvement (five cases) only occurred in posterior or circumferential tumours. CONCLUSIONS: RSM tumour involvement occurs within a considerable number of distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinomas. The rate of RSM tumour involvement identified here is similar to a previously published local recurrence rate of 10% in caecal carcinoma, suggesting that RSM tumour involvement may be a predictor of recurrence in these tumours. Therefore, patients with distal caecal or proximal ascending colon carcinoma and RSM tumour involvement may benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. (+info)
Distribution of cytochrome P450 2C, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5 in human colon mucosa.
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the alimentary tract is part of the body's first line of defense against orally ingested xenobiotica, little is known about the distribution and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human colon. Therefore, expression and protein levels of four representative CYPs (CYP2C(8), CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) were determined in human colon mucosa biopsies obtained from ascending, descending and sigmoid colon. METHODS: Expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 mRNA in colon mucosa was determined by RT-PCR. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot methods. RESULTS: Extensive interindividual variability was found for the expression of most of the genes. However, expression of CYP2C mRNA levels were significantly higher in the ascending colon than in the sigmoid colon. In contrast, mRNA levels of CYP2E1 and CYP3A5 were significantly lower in the ascending colon in comparison to the descending and sigmoid colon. In sigmoid colon protein levels of CYP2C8 were significantly higher by ~73% than in the descending colon. In contrast, protein concentration of CYP2E1 was significantly lower by ~81% in the sigmoid colon in comparison to the descending colon. CONCLUSION: The current data suggest that the expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, and CYP3A5 varies in different parts of the colon. (+info)