Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine.
Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified. (+info)
MR of CNS sarcoidosis: correlation of imaging features to clinical symptoms and response to treatment.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease, recognized in a patient when clinical and radiologic findings are confirmed by histopathologic analysis. The objective was to identify a relationship between MR imaging and clinical findings in CNS sarcoidosis. METHODS: The clinical charts of 461 patients with biopsy-proved sarcoidosis were reviewed retrospectively. Criteria for including patients in the study included those with symptoms referable to the CNS, excluding those with another explanation for their symptoms, those with headaches or other subjective complaints without accompanying objective findings, and those with peripheral neuropathy other than cranial nerve involvement or myopathy without CNS manifestations. Thirty-four of 38 patients whose conditions met the criteria for CNS sarcoidosis underwent a total of 82 MR examinations. The positive imaging findings were divided into categories as follows: pachymeningeal, leptomeningeal, nonenhancing brain parenchymal, enhancing brain parenchymal, cranial nerve, and spinal cord and nerve root involvement. Treatment response, clinical symptomatology, and any available histopathologic studies were analyzed with respect to imaging manifestations in each of the categories. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of the patients with sarcoidosis with neurologic symptoms referable to the CNS had findings revealed by MR imaging. However, eight (40%) of 20 cranial nerve deficits seen at clinical examination of 13 patients were not seen at contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and 50% of the patients with symptoms referable to the pituitary axis had no abnormal findings on routine contrast-enhanced MR images. In contradistinction, 44% of 18 cranial nerves in nine patients with MR evidence of involvement had no symptoms referable to the involved cranial nerve. Clinical and radiologic deterioration occurred more commonly with leptomeningeal and enhancing brain parenchymal lesions. CONCLUSION: MR imaging can be used to confirm clinical suspicion and to show subclinical disease and the response of pathologic lesions to treatment. (+info)
Clinical and MRI study of brain stem and cerebellar involvement in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical and MRI features of brain stem and cerebellar lesions in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: A retrospective study of 66 consecutive Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis (42 women and 24 men) was done by reviewing the medical records and MRI films. Forty nine patients were diagnosed as having clinically definite multiple sclerosis and 17 patients as having clinically probable multiple sclerosis according to Poser's criteria. Prevalence rates of each brain stem and cerebellar manifestation and frequency and distribution of MRI lesions in these patients were studied. RESULTS: Forty three patients (65%) had one or more infratentorial manifestations. Cranial nerves were clinically involved in 28 patients (42%), and most of the lesions were identified by MRI. Among them, manifestations of facial, trigeminal, and abducens nerves were relatively common. Cerebellar ataxia was found in 20 patients (30%). The MRI study showed that the lesions responsible for ataxia in these patients were mainly found in the cerebellar peduncles, but cerebellar hemispheric lesions were detected in only four patients (6.4%). CONCLUSION: The low frequency (6.4%) of the cerebellar MRI lesions in these patients is in sharp contrast with the figures reported for white patients with multiple sclerosis (50%-90%). Racial and genetic differences may have an influence on the susceptibility of each part of the CNS to demyelination in multiple sclerosis. (+info)
CNS involvement in children with newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of CNS involvement at diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), to characterize its pattern of presentation, and to determine its prognostic significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 445 children (1975 through 1995) diagnosed with NHL (small noncleaved cell NHL/B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia [SNCC NHL/B-ALL], 201 patients; lymphoblastic, 113; large cell, 119; other, 12). Tumor burden was estimated by serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement and reclassification of disease stage irrespective of CNS involvement (modified stage). RESULTS: Thirty-six of 445 children with newly diagnosed NHL had CNS involvement (lymphoma cells in the CSF [n = 23], cranial nerve palsy [n = 9], both features [n = 4]), representing 13%, 7%, and 1% of small noncleaved cell lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, and large-cell cases, respectively. By univariate analysis, CNS disease at diagnosis did not significantly impact event-free survival (P =. 095), whereas stage and LDH did; however, children with CNS disease at diagnosis were at 2.0 times greater risk of death than those without CNS disease at diagnosis. In a multivariate analysis, CNS disease was not significantly associated with either overall or event-free survival, whereas both serum LDH and stage influenced both overall and event-free survival. Among cases of SNCC NHL/B-ALL, CNS disease was significantly associated with event-free and overall survival (univariate analysis); however, in multivariate analysis, only LDH had independent prognostic significance. Elevated serum LDH or higher modified stage were associated with a trend toward poorer overall survival among children with CNS disease. CONCLUSION: A greater tumor burden at diagnosis adversely influences the treatment outcome of children with NHL and CNS disease at diagnosis, suggesting a need for ongoing improvement in both systemic and CNS-directed therapy. (+info)
Corneal structure and sensitivity in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
PURPOSE: Corneal wound healing is impaired in diabetic cornea. The purpose of this study was to examine patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus for changes in corneal morphology and to correlate corneal sensitivity, subbasal nerve morphology, and degree of polyneuropathy with each other. METHODS: Forty-four eyes of 23 patients with diabetes and nine control eyes were included. Corneal sensitivity was tested with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer (Luneau, Paris, France), and corneal morphology and epithelial and corneal thickness were determined by in vivo confocal microscopy. The density of subbasal nerves was evaluated by calculating the number of long subbasal nerve fiber bundles per confocal microscopic field. The degree of polyneuropathy was evaluated using the clinical part of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) classification, and retinopathy was evaluated using fundus photographs. RESULTS: A reduction of long nerve fiber bundles per image was noted to have occurred already in patients with mild to moderate neuropathy, but corneal mechanical sensitivity was reduced only in patients with severe neuropathy. Compared with control subjects the corneal thickness was increased in patients with diabetes without neuropathy. The epithelium of patients with diabetes with severe neuropathy was significantly thinner than that of patients with diabetes without neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal microscopy appears to allow early detection of beginning neuropathy, because decreases in nerve fiber bundle counts precede impairment of corneal sensitivity. Apparently, the cornea becomes thicker in a relatively early stage of diabetes but does not further change with the degree of neuropathy. A reduction in neurotrophic stimuli in severe neuropathy may induce a thin epithelium that may lead to recurrent erosions. (+info)
An unusual case of multiple cranial nerve palsies in Wegener's granulomatosis.
We describe an unusual case of Wegener's granulomatosis, which initially caused fulminant palsies affecting cranial nerves II, V, VI, VII, and VIII during a brief episode of the disease. The patient was successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Wegener's granulomatosis should be suspected when multiple cranial nerves are initially affected. (+info)
Corneal morphology and sensitivity in lattice dystrophy type II (familial amyloidosis, Finnish type).
PURPOSE: To describe the corneal abnormalities and to measure different modalities of corneal sensitivity in corneal lattice dystrophy type II (familial amyloidosis, Finnish type, also known as gelsolin-related amyloidosis and originally as Meretoja syndrome). METHODS: Twenty eyes of 20 patients were examined by in vivo confocal microscopy and noncontact gas esthesiometry. RESULTS: Pleomorphism of, and dense deposits between or posterior to, the basal epithelial cells were frequently observed, as well as a reduction of long nerve fiber bundles in the subbasal nerve plexus. The anterior stroma was altered in most cases, with fibrosis and abnormal extracellular matrix. In 15 corneas, thick anterior and midstromal filaments, corresponding to lattice lines, and in 11 corneas, thin undulated structures were observed. The average mechanical sensitivity threshold of 12 subjects was increased, and in the remaining 8 subjects there was no response, even to the highest intensity of stimuli used. Three patients did not respond to CO(2), 11 to heat, and 2 to cold, but those patients who responded had normal thresholds. Patients with more long nerve fiber bundles per confocal microscopic image had better mechanical and cold sensitivity than patients with fewer nerve fiber bundles. CONCLUSIONS: Lattice lines seem to be related to amyloid material and not to corneal nerves. However, the subbasal nerve density appears reduced, which results mainly in a decrease in mechanical and, to a lesser extent, thermal sensitivity. The location of stromal filaments and undulated structures changes with increasing age. (+info)
Parapharyngeal second branchial cyst manifesting as cranial nerve palsies: MR findings.
SUMMARY: We report the MR findings of parapharyngeal branchial cleft cyst manifesting as multiple, lower cranial nerve palsies in a 35-year-old woman. On MR images, a well-marginated cystic mass was detected in the right parapharyngeal space, with displacement of both the right internal carotid artery and the right internal jugular vein on the posterolateral side. The cyst contained a whitish fluid that was slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to CSF on T2-weighted images. No enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images was present. The right side of the tongue showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting denervation. (+info)