A case of methemoglobinemia after ingestion of an aphrodisiac, later proven as dapsone.
Methemoglobin (MetHb) is an oxidation product of hemoglobin in which the sixth coordination position of ferric iron is bound to a water molecule or to a hydroxyl group. The most common cause of acquired MetHb-emia is accidental poisoning which usually is the result of ingestion of water containing nitrates or food containing nitrite, and sometimes the inhalation or ingestion of butyl or amyl nitrite used as an aphrodisiac. We herein report a case of MetHb-emia after ingestion of an aphrodisiac, later identified as dapsone by gas chromatograph/mass selective detector (GC/MSD). A 24-year old male was admitted due to cyanosis after ingestion of a drug purchased as an aphrodisiac. On arterial blood gas analysis, pH was 7.32, PaCO2 26.8 mmHg, PaO2 75.6 mmHg, and bicarbonate 13.9 mmol/L. Initial pulse oxymetry was 89%. With 3 liter of nasal oxygen supplement, oxygen saturation was increased to 90-92%, but cyanosis did not disappear. Despite continuous supplement of oxygen, cyanosis was not improved. On the fifth hospital day, MetHb was 24.9%. Methylene blue was administered (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient rapidly improved. We proved the composition of aphrodisiac as dapsone by the method of GC/MSD. (+info)
Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats.
We studied the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, on the initiation of sexual performance and the weights of sexual accessories in inexperienced castrated male rats. The doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, which were extracted from E. longifolia Jack, were orally administered to the rats twice daily for 10 days prior to the tests and continued throughout the test period. Testosterone was used as a positive control after injecting 15 mg/kg daily subcutaneously for 32 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in sexual performance of the treated animals, but the E. longifolia Jack groups showed lower sexual performance in mounting, intromission and ejaculation than the testosterone group. Further results also showed that E. longifolia Jack promoted the growth of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicles as compared with the control, but the growth of sexual accessories at 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack was less than that of testosterone treated group. The present study therefore gives further evidence of the folkuse of E. longifolia as an aphrodisiac. (+info)
Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male-transferred anti-aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females.
Sexual selection theory predicts that the different selection pressures on males and females result in sexual conflict. However, in some instances males and females share a common interest which could lead to sexual cooperation. In the pierid butterfly Pieris napi the male and the recently mated female share a common interest in reducing female harassment by other males soon after mating. Here we show that P. napi males transfer an anti-aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl-salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them. A 13C-labelling experiment demonstrated that only males synthesize MeS. The effect of this antiaphrodisiac is so strong that most males will refrain from mating with virgin females to whom MeS has been artificially applied. In P. napi, males also transfer nutrients to females at mating. This increases female fecundity and longevity and so females benefit from remating. Hence, sexual cooperation gradually turns to conflict. Future research is required to reveal which sex controls the gradual decrease in the MeS titre which is necessary for allowing mated females to regain attractiveness and remate. (+info)
Effects of Terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats.
AIM: To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Tenminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. METHODS: Male rats were orally treated with 1,500 mg/kg or 3,000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3,000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. RESULTS: The 1,500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3,000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. CONCLUSION: The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation. (+info)
Effect of unilateral lesion of amygdala on unmanifested response to Matatabi (Actinidia polygama) in cats.
The experiment was designed to elucidate the question whether the unilateral ablation of the amygdala significantly affects sexual behavior or not. For this purpose, the effect of the unilateral amygdalectomy upon Matatabi-response was investigated in the cat (R-cat), particularly in cats which showed unmanifested Matatabi-response in the innate status (NR-cat). Following the unilateral damage to the amygdala, NR-cats showed a significant manifestation in their Matatabi-response behavior, while R-cats indicated no change in it, their performance level being the same as preoperatively. It is concluded from the present results that even the unilateral ablation of the amygdala affects sexual behavior significantly, this being in contrast to many previous reprots. The present finding implies that individual differences in sexual behavior appear to depend on the neural basis of the amygdala, supporting an assumption that the amygdala is a controlling center of sexual and emotional behaviors. (+info)
Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels. (+info)
Toad venom poisoning: resemblance to digoxin toxicity and therapeutic implications.
A healthy man developed gastrointestinal symptoms after ingesting purported aphrodisiac pills. He had severe unrelenting bradycardia, hyperkalaemia, and acidosis. He rapidly developed severe life threatening cardiac arrhythmias and died after a few hours. He was found to have positive serum digoxin concentrations, although he was not taking digoxin. Toad venom poisoning is similar to digitalis toxicity and carries a high mortality. Cardiac glycoside poisoning can occur from ingestion of various plants and animal toxins, and the venom gland of cane toad (Bufo marinus) contains large quantities of cardiac glycosides. Toad venom, a constituent of an aphrodisiac, was considered responsible for the development of clinical manifestations and death in this patient. Digoxin specific Fab fragment has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of toad venom poisoning. This report alerts physicians to the need to be aware of a new community toxic exposure, as prompt treatment with digoxin specific Fab fragment may be life saving. The treatment approach to patients with suspected toad venom poisoning is described. (+info)
Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study.
BACKGROUND: Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. METHODS: The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o.) to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate). RESULTS: The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. CONCLUSION: The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice. (+info)