Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal nematodes in slaughter lambs from central Alberta. (65/878)

Two trichostronglyes, Teladorsagia ostertagi and Nematodiru helvetianus, accounted for > 99% of nematodes recovered from gastrointestinal tracts of 47 lambs pastured in central Alberta during the summer of 2000. Their prevalence and mean intensity increased from < 10% and < 50 worms/host, in late June, to > 80% and approximately 1000 worms/host, by mid-July, respectively.  (+info)

Screening for hypertension in a high school population. (66/878)

Of 15 594 high school students (ages, 15 to 20) whose blood pressure was measured in a screening program, 350 (2.2%) has hypertensive readings (150 mm Hg or more systolic, or 95 mm Hg or more diastolic, or both). The mean blood pressure for the boys was 125.0 plus or minus 12.1/71.8 plus or minus 10.9 mm Hg, and for the girls, 119.8 plus or minus 10.2/72.3 plus or minus 9.2 mm Hg. The parents of the students with hypertensive readings were advised to send their children to a physician. By 6 months, of the 232 who were followed up, 156 (67.2%) has visited a physician and in 19 cases (12.2%) the physician had confirmed the hypertensive readings. Only one student, an asymptomatic 17-year-old boy whose hypertension had not previously been detected, was found to have secondary hypertension, which was relieved surgically. Of the 18 hypertensive students 4 are currently receiving antihypertensive medication and 8 continue to have their blood pressure monitored. The mean blood pressures recorded in the physicians' offices averaged 23.7/11.1 mm Hg less than those recorded in the schools. One reason for this was that none of the physicians used pediatric cuffs, but these were required by 62.4% of the students at the screening. Hence, the intravascular blood pressure was probably underestimated in a number of cases in the physicians' offices.  (+info)

Associations between air emissions from sour gas processing plants and indices of cow retainment and survival in dairy herds in Alberta. (67/878)

This paper describes the results of an investigation into the effects of air emissions from sour gas processing plants on indices of retainment or survival of adult female dairy cattle on farms in Alberta; namely, the productive lifespan of individual animals, and annual herd-level risks for culling and mortality. Using a geographical information system, 2 dispersion models--1 simple and 1 complex--were used to assess historical exposures to sour gas emissions at 1382 dairy farm sites from 1985 through to 1994. Multivariable survival models, adjusting for the dependence of survival responses within a herd over time, as well as potential confounding variables, were utilized to determine associations between sour gas exposure estimates and the time from the first calving date to either death or culling of 150210 dairy cows. Generalized linear models were used to model the relationship between herd-level risks for culling and mortality and levels of sour gas exposure. No significant (P < 0.05) associations were found with the time to culling (n = 70052). However, both dispersion model exposure estimates were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a decreased hazard for mortality; that is, in cases where cattle had died on-farm (n = 8743). There were no significant associations (P > 0.05) between herd culling risks and the 2 dispersion model exposure estimates. There was no measurable impact of plant emissions on the annual herd risk of mortality.  (+info)

Long-term follow-up of a hypertension screening program. (68/878)

Of 185 people found to be hypertensive in a shopping centre screening program who went to their physician and had medication prescribed, then were contacted 18 months later, 33 had discontinued the medication at their physician's request. But of 152 who were to continue taking medication 139 (91.4%) had complied. Blood pressure had decreased to less than 160 mm Hg systolic or less than 95 mm Hg diastolic, or both, in 65.1% of the 152; was 160 to 169 mm Hg systolic or 95 to 99 mm Hg diastolic, or both, in 13.8%; was mildly or moderately decreased but still above 169 mm Hg systolic or 99 mmHg diastolic, or both, in 8.6%; and was higher than before the onset of treatment in 3.9%. Adequacy of blood pressure control was not related to age, sex, initial blood pressure values, awareness before the screening of having hypertension, or treatment for hypertension before the screening. Diuretics had been prescribed for 93.5% of the 139 patients, most often as single-pill combinations with other antihypertensive agents.  (+info)

Anemia is common in heart failure and is associated with poor outcomes: insights from a cohort of 12 065 patients with new-onset heart failure. (69/878)

BACKGROUND: Although previous work has suggested that anemia is associated with an increased mortality in selected patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), little is known about the prevalence and predictors of anemia, or whether anemia is an independent prognostic factor in unselected, community-based patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed a population-based cohort of patients with new-onset CHF from a database of patients discharged from 138 acute-care hospitals in Alberta, Canada, between April 1993 and March 2001. Logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, and Cox proportional hazards model were used. Among the 12 065 patients with CHF (median age 78 years), 17% had anemia, 58% of whom had anemia of chronic disease. After adjustment for clinical and demographic variables, patients with anemia were more likely to be older (odds ratio [OR] 1.01 per year) and female (OR 1.2 [95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.3]) and to have a history of chronic renal insufficiency (OR=3.2 [95% confidence interval 2.8 to 3.6]), or hypertension (OR 1.3 [95% confidence interval 1.2 to 1.5]). Hazard ratios for mortality, adjusting for covariates, were 1.34 (1.24 to 1.46) in anemic patients, and 1.36 (1.23 to 1.50) in those patients with anemia of chronic disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of community-dwelling patients with CHF, anemia is common and an independent prognostic factor for mortality. Further research into the mechanisms of anemia in CHF and randomized controlled trials to test whether correction of anemia improves prognosis in CHF are needed.  (+info)

Priority setting in a Canadian surgical department: a case study using program budgeting and marginal analysis. (70/878)

INTRODUCTION: A key mandate of Canadian regional health authorities is to set priorities and allocate resources within a limited finding envelope. The objective in this study was to determine how resources within a surgical program in a Canadian rural hospital might be reallocated to better meet the needs of the local community. METHODS: Early in 2001, at the Canmore General Hospital, Canmore, Alta., an expert-panel working group, consisting of a community health service leader, operating-room nurse clinician, acute care head nurse and a general surgeon, assisted by a research assistant and 2 health economists carried out a program budgeting and marginal analysis project to assess multiple data inputs into the decision-making process and to develop recommendations for service expansion and resource release. They considered the cost and benefits of altering the mix of resources used, based on Headwaters Health Authority activity and financial data, and local expert opinion. RESULTS: The primary recommendation was to implement an additional surgery day per week (38 days of major surgery and 12 days of minor surgery over a 50-week year). However, the total dollars to fund such an expansion could not be released from within the Canmore budget, and additional dollars were not forthcoming from the health region. A secondary objective of implementing an additional minor surgery day every 3 weeks was pursued and the required resources were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Due to resource constraints in health care, efforts by both clinicians and administrators should be made to better spend available resources. The marginal analysis process used in this study served as a useful framework for priority setting, which is generalizable to other surgical and nonsurgical programs in Canada.  (+info)

Effect of adjunctive range-of-motion therapy after primary total knee arthroplasty on the use of health services after hospital discharge. (71/878)

INTRODUCTION: There is controversy as to whether continuous passive motion (CPM) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which is the standard treatment, confers significant benefit with respect to outcome. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if CPM or slider-board (SB) therapy, used as adjuncts to standardized exercises (SEs) during the acute-care hospital stay, resulted in a reduced total length of hospitalization and post-discharge rehabilitation in patients who underwent primary TKA. METHODS: We carried out a randomized, clinical trial on 120 patients who received a TKA at the University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, a tertiary care institution. The study horizon began at the point of discharge from the hospital and continued up to 6 months after operation. Postoperatively, patients (40 in each group) received CPM and SEs, SB therapy and SEs or SEs alone while in the tertiary Health service use was compared using transfer institution length of stay(LOS), post-discharge rehabilitation, readmission and complication rates and their associated costs. RESULTS: There were no differences in health service use or costs among the 3 groups over the 6-month study. The rates of postoperative complications and readmissions also were similar among the groups. Increased health service use associated with knee flexion that was less than 60 degrees at discharge, but similar proportions of patients with poor knee range of movement (ROM) at discharge were found in each group. CONCLUSIONS: This finding suggests that adjunctive ROM therapy, as used in this study, does not reduce health service use. Further research is required to determine if adjunctive ROM therapy after discharge from the surgical hospital decreases health service utilization in those patients who have poor knee ROM at the time of discharge.  (+info)

Variation in management of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission to Alberta, Canada hospitals. (72/878)

Previous studies have shown small area variation in the rate of admission to hospital for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We determined the rates of admission and length of stay for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Alberta and the factors influencing admission rates and length of stay. Using hospital abstracts, hospital admissions for community-acquired pneumonia from 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1999 were compared. We classified Alberta hospitals according to geographical regions, by the number of beds, and by number of community-acquired pneumonia cases. There were 12,000 annual hospital discharges for community-acquired pneumonia costing over $40 million per year. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 12% and the 1 year mortality rate was 26%. Compared with rural hospitals, regional and metropolitan hospitals admitted patients with greater severity of illness as demonstrated by greater in-hospital mortality, cost per case and comorbidity. Age-sex adjusted hospital discharge rates were significantly below the provincial average in both urban regions. Hospital discharge rates for residents in all rural regions and 4 of 5 regions with a regional hospital were significantly higher than the provincial average. After adjusting for comorbidity, the relative risk for a longer length of stay was 22% greater in regional hospitals and about 30% greater in urban hospitals compared to rural hospitals. Seasonal variation in the admission rate was evident, with higher rates in the winter of each year. We conclude that rural hospitals would be likely to benefit from a protocol to help with the admission decision and urban hospitals from a programme to reduce length of stay.  (+info)