Distribution kinetics of salicylic acid in the dual-perfused rat liver preparation.
The hepatic distribution kinetics of salicylic acid was determined using a single-pass dual hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) perfused in situ rat liver preparation. Bolus doses of [14C]salicylic acid and of reference markers ([3H]-water and [14C]-sucrose) were injected in a random order into either the HA or PV and then, after an appropriate interval, into the alternate vessel. The hepatic outflow profile of [14C]salicylic acid displayed a characteristic sharp peak followed by a slower eluting tail, whereas sucrose and water displayed unimodal outflow profiles. The biphasic outflow profile indicates that the hepatic distribution of salicylic acid is not instantaneous but is limited by a permeability barrier. The in situ permeability surface area product for [14C]salicylic acid was 3.35 +/- 0.26 ml/min/g for PV and 7.45 +/- 1. 50 ml/min/g for HA administration. Furthermore, theory dictates that hepatic uptake is influenced by both perfusion and permeability if effective permeability surface area product/blood flow ratio lies between the values of 0.06 and 7.0. Our estimates (3.0 for venous output and 6.7 for arterial input) indicate that hepatic uptake of salicylic acid is dependent on both perfusion and permeability. The volume terms were calculated using two different methods, standard and specific. Regardless of the compound and method, the volume of distribution after arterial administration was larger than that after venous administration. In addition, a volume of distribution approximately twice that of the total aqueous space (i.e., HA, 2.23 +/- 0.13 versus 1.10 +/- 0.07 ml/g; PV, 1.72 +/- 0.16 versus 0.68 +/- 0.04 ml/g) implies that salicylic acid has a significant affinity for hepatic tissue. A similar tissue-to-perfusate partition coefficient associated with HA and PV input (5.40 +/- 0.38 versus 6. 48 +/- 0.56) indicates that affinity of salicylic acid for hepatic tissue is independent of the route of input. (+info)
Salicylate inhibits LDL oxidation initiated by superoxide/nitric oxide radicals.
Simultaneously produced superoxide/nitric oxide radicals (O2*-/NO*) could form peroxynitrite (OONO-) which has been found to cause atherogenic, i.e. oxidative modification of LDL. Aromatic hydroxylation and nitration of the aspirin metabolite salicylate by OONO- has been reported. Therefore we tested if salicylate may be able to protect LDL from oxidation by O2*-/NO* by scavenging the OONO reactive decomposition products. When LDL was exposed to simultaneously produced O2*-/NO* using the sydnonimine SIN-1, salicylate exerted an inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation as measured by TBARS and lipid hydroperoxide formation and alteration in electrophoretic mobility of LDL. The cytotoxic effect of SIN-1 pre-oxidised LDL to endothelial cells was also diminished when salicylate was present during SIN-1 treatment of LDL. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that salicylate was converted to dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) derivatives in the presence of SIN-1. 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA were even more effective to protect LDL from oxidation by O2*-/NO*. Because O2*-/NO* can occur in vivo, the results may indicate that salicylate could act as an efficacious inhibitor of O2*-/NO* initiated atherogenic LDL modification, thus further supporting the rationale of aspirin medication regarding cardiovascular diseases. (+info)
Is arcA3 a possible mediator in the signal transduction pathway during agonist cell cycle arrest by salicylic acid and UV irradiation?
Progression of BY-2 tobacco cells through the cell cycle was followed after treatments with ultra violet (UV) and salicylic acid (SA) used as a potent inhibitor of the octadecanoid pathway which can mediate response to UV irradiation. Cells in S phase were more sensitive than G0/G1 or G2 cells to UV irradiation. Although SA efficiently blocked cells in G0/G1 or G2, it did not block S phase synchronized cells. UV and SA applied simultaneously to cells in G0/G1 delayed the cell cycle progression more than each one separately. Therefore UV irradiation and SA act as agonists to arrest BY-2 cells at cell cycle entry. To further investigate the signalling pathway mediating UV response, we complemented a UV-sensitive Escherichia coli strain with a Nicotiana xanthi cDNA expression library. A cDNA (arcA3) whose coding sequence is identical to the 2,4-D induced arcA cDNA cloned by Ishida et al. (1993) was isolated. We show that arcA3 transcription is induced at cell cycle entry but not directly by the 2,4-D treatment. Moreover, arcA3 transcription is induced prior to the restriction point as shown with the CDK inhibitor roscovitine. The arcA3 transcription level is increased by UV irradiation but prevented by SA. Indeed, addition of SA prior to UV irradiation blocks the induction of arcA3 transcription. This suggests that arcA3 gene is modulated in both UV and SA responses, the SA effect preceding the UV step. Since arcA3 is 67% similar to RACK1 (functional homology), a rat intracellular receptor for protein kinase C, and possesses identical PKC fixation motifs, it is hypothesised that the arcA3 gene is involved in UV and SA cell cycle arrest. (+info)
Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory.
Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack . The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR  . A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory  . There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores  . This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding   , although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance. (+info)
Nanogram amounts of salicylic acid produced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 activate the systemic acquired resistance pathway in bean.
Root colonization by specific nonpathogenic bacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants to pathogen infections. In bean, this kind of systemic resistance can be induced by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and depends on the production of salicylic acid by this strain. In a model with plants grown in perlite we demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2-induced resistance is equivalent to the inclusion of 1 nM salicylic acid in the nutrient solution and used the latter treatment to analyze the molecular basis of this phenomenon. Hydroponic feeding of 1 nM salicylic acid solutions induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in roots and increased free salicylic acid levels in leaves. Because pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance involves similar changes it was concluded that 7NSK2-induced resistance is mediated by the systemic acquired resistance pathway. This conclusion was validated by analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in roots and of salicylic acid levels in leaves of soil-grown plants treated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The induction of systemic acquired resistance by nanogram amounts of salicylic acid is discussed with respect to long-distance signaling in systemic acquired resistance. (+info)
Interaction of NPR1 with basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors that bind sequences required for salicylic acid induction of the PR-1 gene.
The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance. The npr1 mutant plants fail to respond to systemic acquired resistance-inducing signals such as salicylic acid (SA), or express SA-induced pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using NPR1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified a subclass of transcription factors in the basic leucine zipper protein family (AHBP-1b and TGA6) and showed that they interact specifically in yeast and in vitro with NPR1. Point mutations that abolish the NPR1 function in A. thaliana also impair the interactions between NPR1 and the transcription factors in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Furthermore, a gel mobility shift assay showed that the purified transcription factor protein, AHBP-1b, binds specifically to an SA-responsive promoter element of the A. thaliana PR-1 gene. These data suggest that NPR1 may regulate PR-1 gene expression by interacting with a subclass of basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors. (+info)
Environmental factors modulating antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strains.
Understanding the environmental factors that regulate the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds by disease-suppressive strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens is an essential step toward improving the level and reliability of their biocontrol activity. We used liquid culture assays to identify several minerals and carbon sources which had a differential influence on the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL), pyoluteorin (PLT), and pyrrolnitrin and the siderophores salicylic acid and pyochelin by the model strain CHA0, which was isolated from a natural disease-suppressive soil in Switzerland. Production of PHL was stimulated by Zn2+, NH4Mo2+, and glucose; the precursor compound mono-acetylphloroglucinol was stimulated by the same factors as PHL. Production of PLT was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+, and glycerol but was repressed by glucose. Pyrrolnitrin production was increased by fructose, mannitol, and a mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+. Pyochelin production was increased by Co2+, fructose, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, production of its precursor salicylic acid was increased by different factors, i.e., NH4Mo2+, glycerol, and glucose. The mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+ with fructose, mannitol, or glycerol further enhanced the production of PHL and PLT compared with either the minerals or the carbon sources used alone, but it did not improve siderophore production. Extending fermentation time from 2 to 5 days increased the accumulation of PLT, pyrrolnitrin, and pyochelin but not of PHL. When findings with CHA0 were extended to an ecologically and genetically diverse collection of 41 P. fluorescens biocontrol strains, the effect of certain factors was strain dependent, while others had a general effect. Stimulation of PHL by Zn2+ and glucose was strain dependent, whereas PLT production by all strains that can produce this compound was stimulated by Zn2+ and transiently repressed by glucose. Inorganic phosphate reduced PHL production by CHA0 and seven other strains tested but to various degrees. Production of PLT but not pyrrolnitrin by CHA0 was also reduced by 100 mM phosphate. The use of 1/10-strength nutrient broth-yeast extract, compared with standard nutrient broth-yeast extract, amended with glucose and/or glycerol resulted in dramatically increased accumulations of PHL (but not PLT), pyochelin, and salicylic acid, indicating that the ratio of carbon source to nutrient concentration played a key role in the metabolic flow. The results of this study (i) provide insight into the biosynthetic regulation of antimicrobial compounds, (ii) limit the number of factors for intensive study in situ, and (iii) indicate factors that can be manipulated to improve bacterial inoculants. (+info)
A functional 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway gene cluster is linked to the initial dibenzo-p-dioxin pathway genes in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1.
The bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 is able to use dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and several hydroxylated derivatives as sole sources of carbon and energy. We have determined and analyzed the nucleic acid sequence of a 9,997-bp HindIII fragment downstream of cistrons dxnA1A2, which encode the dioxygenase component of the initial dioxygenase system of the corresponding catabolic pathways. This fragment contains 10 colinear open reading frames (ORFs), apparently organized in one compact operon. The enzymatic activities of some proteins encoded by these genes were analyzed in the strain RW1 and, after hyperexpression, in Escherichia coli. The first three ORFs of the locus, designated dxnC, ORF2, and fdx3, specify a protein with a low homology to bacterial siderophore receptors, a polypeptide representing no significant homology to known proteins, and a putative ferredoxin, respectively. dxnD encodes a 69-kDa phenol monooxygenase-like protein with activity for the turnover of 4-hydroxysalicylate, and dxnE codes for a 37-kDa protein whose sequence and activity are similar to those of known maleylacetate reductases. The following gene, dxnF, encodes a 33-kDa intradiol dioxygenase which efficiently cleaves hydroxyquinol, yielding maleylacetate, the ketoform of 3-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate. The heteromeric protein encoded by dxnGH is a 3-oxoadipate succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) transferase, whereas dxnI specifies a protein exhibiting marked homology to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferases (thiolases). The last ORF of the sequenced fragment codes for a putative transposase. DxnD, DxnF, DxnE, DxnGH, and DxnI (the activities of most of them have also been detected in strain RW1) thus form a complete 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway. A route for the mineralization of the growth substrates 3-hydroxydibenzofuran and 2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 thus suggests itself. (+info)