• fleas
  • Direct examination of infected fleas, aided by in vitro studies and experiments with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have established that Y. pestis forms a biofilm in the insect. (nih.gov)
  • yet only Y. pestis forms biofilms in fleas. (nih.gov)
  • bacterial
  • TheYersinia pestis protein Ail binds to laminin and heparin, therefore allowing bacterial attachment to host cells. (wikipedia.org)