Loading...




Warning: preg_replace(): Compilation failed: unmatched parentheses at offset 11 in /home/lookformedical/www/faq.php on line 166
  • Rise
  • Also be aware that yeast tends to move quicker than starters do, so expect to cut the rise time down by something like one half (or else reduce the yeast even more). (thefreshloaf.com)
  • cerevisiae
  • This entry describes the research with S. cerevisiae, hereinafter called yeast, exclusively. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In S. cerevisiae are toxins encoded by a double-stranded RNA virus, translated to a precursor protein, cleaved and secreted outside of the cells, where they may affect susceptible yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaughan-Martini, Cardinali and Martini (1996) used 24 strains of killer yeast from 13 species to find a resistance signature for each of 13 strains of S. cerevisiae which were used as starters in wine-making. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, beer brewers slowly switched from top-fermenting to bottom-fermenting yeast (both S. cerevisiae) and this created a shortage of yeast for making bread, so the Vienna Process was developed in 1846. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1879, Great Britain introduced specialized growing vats for the production of S. cerevisiae, and in the United States around the turn of the century centrifuges were used for concentrating the yeast, making modern commercial yeast possible, and turning yeast production into a major industrial endeavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2000, selenium yeast (S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3060) has been reviewed and received the following approvals for use in animal and human diets: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use as a supplement to feed for chickens, turkeys, swine, goats, sheep, horses, dogs, bison, and beef and dairy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some species of bacteria that can produce B12 could potentially grow along with S. cerevisiae in the wild, commercially produced nutritional yeast is grown in controlled conditions that would normally not allow those bacteria to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. cerevisiae (yeast) can stably exist as either a diploid or a haploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • baker's
  • 12. Types of Baker's YeastCream Yeast  Suspension of yeast cellsCream yeast is not termed as baker's yeast but is a marketable product  Solid contents about 18-20  Compressed Yeast  Solid contents range between 27-33%  Most of the moisture is removed & dried by passing through fluid-bed drier. (slideshare.net)
  • Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baker's yeast is also a single-cell microorganism found on and around the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cultures (sometimes referred to in old American cookery as "emptins", from their origins as the dregs of beer or cider fermentation) would become the ancestors of modern baker's yeast, as, in general, they were carefully maintained to avoid what would later be discovered to be bacterial contamination, including using preservatives such as hops as well as boiling the growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast flocculation is distinct from agglomeration ('grit' formation), which is irreversible and occurs most commonly in baker's yeast when strains fail to separate when resuspended (Guinard and Lewis, 1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • However, the yeast used for fermentation contributes little to the flavors of aged wine, and most flavor contributions from the yeast will be undetectable in wines aged in oak barrels for normal periods. (angelfire.com)
  • Many other winemaking factors such as fruit quality, grape variety, the climate, fermentation temperature, lees contact, cap manipulation, etc. influence wine flavors much more than yeast. (angelfire.com)
  • Yeast characteristics important to winemakers include speed of fermentation, color extraction, how much alcohol is produced, tendencies to stick, the quantity of foam generated, hydrogen sulfide production, etc. (angelfire.com)
  • California Champagne or Prise de Mousse are better yeasts for the secondary fermentation of sparkling wines. (angelfire.com)
  • However, Chardonnay juice can be difficult to ferment completely, and stuck fermentation often results when Epernay yeast is used with Chardonnay. (angelfire.com)
  • 9. After this yeast is separated and stored for several days before using in final trade fermentation Next is Pitch fermentation, to prepare a pitch, fed- batch is followed Then from intermediate to a stock fermentor. (slideshare.net)
  • 10. Fermentation  After seed production final trade production is carried out  Duration of final trade fermentation is about 19 to 22 hrs,  During final trade production yeast cells increase in number 5 to 8 fold  During fermentation pH, regulation of nutrients, airflow are monitored carefully. (slideshare.net)
  • In 1857, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur proved in the paper "Mémoire sur la fermentation alcoolique" that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • The YMDB was designed to facilitate yeast metabolomics research, specifically in the areas of general fermentation as well as wine, beer and fermented food analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Its distant cousin, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, or fission yeast, was shown in 2000 to undergo a very similar aging process. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As of 2000, twenty genes that determine yeast life span had been identified. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These disadvantages have not limited the success of yeast display for a number of applications, including engineering the highest monovalent ligand-binding affinity reported to date for an engineered protein (Boder, E.T. 2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • I am working here at Milton Academy on a 'Do Your Own' Science Experiment, and my teacher recommended the topic of yeast metabolism and how the carbon dioxide/ethanol levels increase while they 'grow. (bio.net)
  • Similarly, yeast expressing endoglucanase from Trichoderma reesei as well as β-glucosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus were used to break down agricultural waste into material which can be turned into ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • For flocculation to occur the yeast must be flocculent and certain environmental conditions (such as agitation, absence of sugars, a microamount of Ca2+, ethanol, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Yeast display (or yeast surface display) is a protein engineering technique that uses the expression of recombinant proteins incorporated into the cell wall of yeast for isolating and engineering antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast are eukaryotic organisms that allow for complex post-translational modifications to proteins that no other display libraries are able to provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approval for human health claims linking dietary intake of selenium yeast to "protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, normal function of the immune system, normal thyroid function and normal spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbiology
  • Without an understanding of microbiology, early bakers would have had little ability to directly control yeast cultures, but still kept locally interesting cultures by reusing doughs and starters to leaven later batches. (wikipedia.org)
  • commercial yeast
  • In the United States, naturally occurring airborne yeasts were used almost exclusively until commercial yeast was marketed at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 in Philadelphia, where Charles L. Fleischmann exhibited the product and a process to use it, as well as serving the resultant baked bread. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The initial protein product from translation of the M dsRNA is called the preprotoxin, which is targeted to the yeast secretory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Aga2p protein is naturally used by yeast to mediate cell-cell contacts during yeast cell mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, display of a protein via Aga2p projects the protein away from the cell surface, minimizing potential interactions with other molecules on the yeast cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of magnetic separation and flow cytometry in conjunction with a yeast display library is a highly effective method to isolate high affinity protein ligands against nearly any receptor through directed evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common mechanism of arming yeast is to fuse a protein of interest to the extracellular domain of the yeast mating protein α-agglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to its similarity to S-containing methionine, selenomethionine is taken up nonspecifically and becomes part of yeast protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary selenomethionine-containing plant or yeast protein can be also stored nonspecifically in animal protein, which can result in nutritionally useful selenium content in meat, milk, and eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Joe Dickson, a past member of the USDA's National Organic Standards Board, a number of consumer groups have claimed that certain food ingredients, such as autolyzed yeast and hydrolyzed protein, are MSG in disguise. (wikipedia.org)
  • bakers
  • In the 19th century, bread bakers obtained their yeast from beer brewers, and this led to sweet-fermented breads such as the Imperial "Kaiser-Semmel" roll, which in general lacked the sourness created by the acidification typical of Lactobacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1987
  • Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W. (1987) In The Yeasts , 2nd edn, Vol. 1 (eds A.H. Rose and J.S. Harrison), Academic Press, London, p. 1. (springer.com)
  • unicellular
  • Yeast is a unicellular organism whose DNA is packaged into chromosomes that are localized in a subcellular structure called the nucleus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • hybridization
  • The first section concludes with the description of methods for hybridization of yeasts by protoplast fusion, which has been described as the poor man's system for genetic engineering. (springer.com)
  • instant yeast
  • Lesaffre would later create instant yeast in the 1970s, which has gained considerable use and market share at the expense of both fresh and dry yeast in their various applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • and pizza crust yeast, an instant yeast packaged with dough relaxers intended to reduce the amount of time needed to make a fresh pizza crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The priority of yeast in this field has resulted in rapid advances in the study of function at the whole genome level, providing a wide range of materials, tools, and concepts that are being applied to other organisms as well. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Yeast microbes are probably one of the earliest domesticated organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1680, Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, but rather globular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pichia
  • Other toxin systems are found in other yeasts: Pichia and Williopsis Hanseniaspora uvarum Zygosaccharomyces bailii Ustilago maydis Debaryomyces hansenii The susceptibility to toxins varies greatly between yeast species and strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • extract
  • Total selenium in selenium yeast can be reliably determined using open acid digestion to extract selenium from the yeast matrix followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovril (Ireland and the United Kingdom) switched from beef extract to yeast extract for 2005 and most of 2006, but later switched back. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast extract is used as a flavour enhancer in processed foods of all kinds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolyzed yeast or hydrolyzed yeast extract is another version used as a flavour enhancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional yeast is different from yeast extract, which has a very strong flavour and comes in the form of a dark brown paste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiration
  • Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration (obligate aerobes) or are anaerobic, but also have aerobic methods of energy production (facultative anaerobes). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Clearly, maltose is the best for yeast metabolism. (csun.edu)
  • The organic form of selenium provided by selenium yeast has been shown to differ in bioavailability and metabolism compared with inorganic (e.g., selenate, selenite) forms of dietary selenium. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaginal
  • NIAID: "Vaginal Yeast Infection: Transmission. (webmd.com)
  • UpToDate: "Vaginal Yeast Infection (Beyond the Basics). (webmd.com)
  • If your daughter has a vaginal yeast infection, her doctor can prescribe treatment to clear up the symptoms in a couple of days and cure the infection within a week. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your daughter has any symptoms of a yeast infection - like itchiness or abnormal vaginal discharge - she should see her doctor or gynecologist . (kidshealth.org)
  • If your daughter does have a yeast infection, her doctor can prescribe a medicine to take by mouth or a vaginal cream, tablet, or suppository that will quickly clear up the symptoms in a few days and the infection within a week. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vaginal yeast infection, also known as candidal vulvovaginitis and vaginal thrush, is excessive growth of yeast in the vagina that results in irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 75% of women have at least one vaginal yeast infection at some point in their lives while nearly half have at least two. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of yeast is typically diagnosed in one of three ways: vaginal wet mount microscopy, microbial culture, and antigen tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification
  • this present chapter is concerned primarily with classification and nomenclature of yeasts, and the general principles of yeast identification. (springer.com)
  • YMDB supports the identification and characterization of yeast metabolites using NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS spectrometry and Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS spectrometry). (wikipedia.org)
  • microbes
  • Because yeast are microbes they divide very rapidly, in a short time generating much material for physiological, biochemical, and molecular analysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • mitosis
  • Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Aging is not typically measured by time in yeast, but rather by the number of divisions an individual cell completes before it dies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Yeast sizes vary greatly, depending on species and environment, typically measuring 3-4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast flocculation typically refers to the clumping together (flocculation) of brewing yeast once the sugar in a wort has been fermented into beer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fleischmann's
  • Fleischmann's Yeast is a brand of yeast sold to both consumer and industrial markets in the United States and Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1929, the company was merged into Standard Brands by J.P. Morgan, and that same year the company began the sponsorship of the musical variety radio program, The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour starring Rudy Vallée. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the fame of this exhibit came an increased demand for Fleischmann's yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae
  • It is this metabolic route that makes selenium yeast valuable in animal and human nutrition, since it offers the same organic form of selenium produced by food-chain autotrophs (i.e., most plants and certain blue-green algae). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Researchers speculate that a mixture of flour meal and water was left longer than usual on a warm day and the yeasts that occur in natural contaminants of the flour caused it to ferment before baking. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Recommended applications of some popular, dry Lalvin yeasts are shown in Figure 3, and some important yeast characteristics are shown in Figure 4. (angelfire.com)
  • Epernay yeast can produce very pleasant, fruity aroma characteristics in young wines, and home winemakers use Epernay yeast for fermenting fruit wines because of the fruity aromas produced. (angelfire.com)
  • Black yeasts share some distinctive characteristics, in particular melanisation of their cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • bread
  • Archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4,000-year-old bakeries and breweries. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Several yeast genetic databases are accessible online, which facilitates functional genome analyses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The genetic control of yeast flocculation has not been extensively studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a form of genetic recombination, haploid yeast can switch mating type as often as every cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The yeast genome was the first to be completely sequenced. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are also proce- dures for induction of mutants by physical and chemical agents, and for iso- lation of particular types of mutants, such as to temperature sensitivity, for increased frequency of mutations, for mutations in the mitochondrial genome, both to the petite colonie form and to resistance to antibiotics, for mutations in that part of the yeast genome controlling the glycolytic cycle, and numerous others. (springer.com)
  • nutritional
  • 1. Melt the margerine in a pan (old, seasoned cast iron is always the best), and before it browns whisk in the nutritional yeast. (vegweb.com)
  • Selenium yeast supplementation of food-animal diets has an added nutritional benefit to human consumers of food-animal products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes nutritional yeast is fortified with vitamin B12. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional yeast has a strong flavor that is described as nutty, cheesy, or creamy, which makes it popular as an ingredient in cheese substitutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional yeast is produced by culturing a yeast in a nutrient medium for several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional values for nutritional yeast vary from one manufacturer to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • While fortified and unfortified nutritional yeast both provide iron, the fortified yeast provides 20 percent of the recommended daily value, while unfortified yeast provides only 5 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortified nutritional yeast provides from 35 to 100 percent of vitamins B1 and B2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because nutritional yeast is often used by vegans, who need to supplement their diets with vitamin B12, there has been confusion about the source of the B12 in nutritional yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some brands of nutritional yeast, though not all, are fortified with vitamin B12. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, nutritional yeast is not a reliable source of B12 unless it is fortified. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • The first includes the essential, sometimes laborious, procedures for handling yeasts, for inducing mating and isolation of hybrids, for inducing sporulation and isolation of single-spore clones, with some details of tetrad analysis, and including techniques and ancillary equipment for use of the micromanipulator. (springer.com)
  • Mating
  • The mating of yeast only occurs between haploids, which can be either the a or α (alpha) mating type and thus display simple sexual differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • The powerful tools of yeast genetics and cell biology have extended this description. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This has revolutionized yeast genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mapping of mutations is discussed briefly, though this aspect of yeast genetics is probably one which should not be undertaken until the investigator has gained a certain amount of experience in the field. (springer.com)
  • How- ever, as is pointed out in the pertinent part of the manual, the task of mapping has been tremendouslysimplified by the availability from the Yeast Genetics Stock Center at the University of California at Berkeley of a set of auxo- trophic strains designed to permit mapping of most unknown genes with a minimum number of crosses and tetrad analyses. (springer.com)
  • Consequently
  • A large community of yeast researchers exists, and, consequently, there is a wealth of biological information and expertise that can be tapped. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Consequently, strategies to supplement animal feed with selenium yeast have led to the development of selenium-rich functional foods, including selenium-enriched eggs and meats for human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In addition to this organelle, yeast also possesses mitochondria, which are the power plants of the cell that generate the energy needed for cellular function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, the study of yeast is pertinent to both cellular and organismal aging. (encyclopedia.com)
  • cell
  • About 25 percent of human genes have yeast counterparts, and these human genes have frequently been shown to functionally replace the corresponding gene in the yeast cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An individual cell is easy to follow from birth to death because yeast divides asymmetrically by budding off new daughters. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The yeast cell is at the same time the yeast organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • L-A virus uses yeast Ski complex (super killer) and MAK (maintenance of killer) chromosomal genes for its preservation in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently the yeast display library created by Boder is no longer available, as the INVSc1 cell line from Invitrogen is no longer available due to IP issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • However, it became possible to isolate and propagate favored yeast strains in the same manner as was done in the beer industry, and it eventually became practical to propagate yeast in a slurry with a composition similar to beer wort, usually including malted barley and wheat flour. (wikipedia.org)