• Bovine
  • Bovine xanthine oxidase (from milk) was originally thought to have a binding site to reduce cytochrome c with, but it has been found that the mechanism to reduce this protein is through XO's superoxide anion byproduct, with competitive inhibition by carbonic anhydrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphoribosyltransferase
  • Other names in common use include Xan phosphoribosyltransferase, xanthosine 5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase, xanthylate pyrophosphorylase, xanthylic pyrophosphorylase, XMP pyrophosphorylase, 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose-1-diphosphate:xanthine, phospho-D-ribosyltransferase, 9-(5-phospho-beta-D-ribosyl)xanthine:diphosphate, and 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • A study found that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) had a decrease in oxidative stress, including glutathione oxidation and lipid peroxidation, when xanthine oxidase was inhibited using allopurinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • gout
  • In folk medicine the tree fern Cyathea spinulosa (formerly Alsophila spinulosa) has been used for gout, but its most active component, caffeic acid, is only a weak inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The present invention is directed to the use of xanthine compounds in medicine, and more particularly to the use of xanthine compounds to counteract the effects of certain classes of drugs. (google.com)
  • Studies reported in 2008, based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that xanthine and related chemicals, including the RNA component uracil, were formed extraterrestrially. (wikipedia.org)
  • allopurinol
  • Since xanthine oxidase is involved in the metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine, caution should be taken before administering allopurinol and 6-mercaptopurine, or its prodrug azathioprine, in conjunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • potent
  • In contrast to other, more potent stimulants like sympathomimetic amines, xanthines mainly act to oppose the actions of the sleepiness-inducing adenosine, and increase alertness in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivative
  • Pentoxifylline (1-(5-oxohexyl)-3,7-dimethylxanthine), abbreviated PTX, is a xanthine derivative which has seen widespread medical use for the increase of blood flow. (patentgenius.com)
  • compound
  • 1. A method of accelerating anesthetic recovery, comprising the step of administering a sufficient amount of a pharmaceutically acceptable xanthine compound to an anesthetized patient to accelerate anesthetic recovery, wherein said anesthesia is produced in the patient with at least one compound selected from the group consisting of propofol, an inhaled anesthetic, an opioid, an etomidate, a barbiturate, and an anesthetic purine compound. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein said xanthine compound has the structure: ##STR4## wherein R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 are independently selected from the group of moieties consisting of a hydrogen, an alkyl, and an aryl. (google.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein said xanthine compound is selected from the group consisting of 1,3-dimethyl xanthine, 3,7-dimethyl xanthine, and 1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine. (google.com)
  • The invention relates to a discovery that an isomer of a hydroxy-substituted xanthine compound is an effective agent to modulate cellular responses to stimuli mediated through a stereo-specific cellular second messenger pathway. (patentgenius.com)
  • species
  • Another reaction catalyzed by xanthine oxidase is the decomposition of S-Nitrosothiols (RSNO), a reactive nitrogen species, to nitric oxide (NO), which reacts with a superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite under aerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)