• protein
  • Here, we describe a complete characterization of the strategy based on TGL triple-fusion reporter gene--which codifies for Herpes Simplex virus type 1 thymidine-kinase (HSV1-TK), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Firefly Luciferase--(SFG(NES)TGL) to inactivate encapsulated cells and their therapeutic effects. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Icariside II also enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SH2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1, and the addition of sodium pervanadate (a PTP inhibitor) prevented Icariside II-induced apoptosis as well as STAT3 inactivation in STAT3 positive U937 cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Finally, inactivation of the MAXdimerization protein, MGA, was also observed in both non-small cell lung cancer and SCLC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Herein, we report that SCF promotes mast cell survival through inactivation of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a (forkhead box, class O3A) and down-regulation and phosphorylation of its target Bim (Bcl-2 [B-cell lymphoma-interacting modulator of cell death), a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proapoptotic protein. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we used a strategy based on a genetically encoded fluorescent protein that generates highly localized and damaging reactive oxygen species to rapidly inactivate exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during live-cell imaging and address the long-standing question of whether the integrity of the Golgi complex depends on constant input from the ER. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, we sought a technique for rapid protein inactivation while carrying out live-cell imaging experiments to better understand Golgi dynamics. (biologists.org)
  • p16 INK4A , originally identified as a protein associating with CDK4 in transformed cells ( 57 ), was cloned in a two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with CDK4 ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Down-regulation of transglutaminase II leads to impaired motility of cancer cells by inactivation of the protein kinase, Akt, and decrease of reactive oxygen species. (docphin.com)
  • Down-regulation of TGase II by small interfering RNA against TGase II impaired adhesion and motility of HeLa cells by decreasing phosphorylation of the protein kinase, Akt, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). (docphin.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that exercise-induced inactivation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) disrupts individual immune cell function, and thus may be linked to exercise-induced immunosuppression. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • CTLA4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and B7-2 respectively, on antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to that, it has been found, dendritic cell (DC) - Treg interaction causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting DCs toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • They bind to CD22, a receptor protein on the surface of normal B cells and B-cell tumors, and, upon internalization, kill the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAT-3888 (or BL22) is an anti-CD22 immunotoxin and completed a Phase I clinical (human) trial for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia at the NIH in the U.S. Technically, CAT-3888 is an anti-CD22 immunotoxin fusion protein between a murine anti-CD22 disulfide-linked Fv (dsFv) antibody fragment and an edited copy of bacterial Pseudomonas exotoxin PE38. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cucurmosin is a type I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) found in the sarcocarp (flesh) and seed of Cucurbita - notably Cucurbita moschata, that is toxic to cancer cells, if the dosage is high enough, by stopping their ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rb binds and inhibits E2 promoter-binding-protein-dimerization partner (E2F-DP) dimers, which are transcription factors of the E2F family that push the cell into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • The ester and ester/amide derivatives of butyrate were shown to block proliferation by interleukin-2-stimulated murine Th1 cells in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the number of cells per capsule and EPO secretion decayed to less than 15% at the same time that proliferation was arrested after 14 days of GCV treatment in vitro. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this anti-proliferation process, this herb compound rendered the cells susceptible to apoptosis, manifested by enhanced accumulation of sub-G1 cell population and increased the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Proliferation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is limited to a few passages in culture due to an arrest in G 1 termed selection or mortality stage 0, M0. (asm.org)
  • Evidence that M0 involves the Rb pathway comes from the observation that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 alleviates the M0 proliferation block, and we further show that the Rb-binding region of E7 is required to allow cells to bypass M0. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that inactivation of the D-type cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 INK4A is associated with escape from the M0 proliferation block. (asm.org)
  • All of these observations underscore the important role of the Rb pathway in controlling cell proliferation. (asm.org)
  • This receptor is capable of stimulating T-cell proliferation in the presence of CD3 signaling, which suggests its regulatory role in immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was originally developed as an anti-inflammatory drug with potential applications in the treatment of autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, but subsequent research showed that it inhibits cell proliferation and might potentially have useful anti-cancer effects, and it has been put into clinical trials to assess its safety and tolerability in this application. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Inactivation of encapsulated cells and their therapeutic effects by means of TGL triple-fusion reporter/biosafety gene. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Altogether, these results show that TGL triple-fusion reporter gene may be a good starting point in the search of a suitable biosafety strategy to inactivate encapsulated cells and control their therapeutic effects. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we report our discovery of tumor-specifi c inactivation of the MYC-associated factorX gene, MAX , in SCLC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since the identification of the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene as a tumor suppressor gene and elucidation of its role in controlling the cell cycle, the Rb pathway has emerged as one of the key targets for inactivation in the development of cancer. (asm.org)
  • In addition to PDI-induced gene expression, there was high cell mortality, suggesting that the antioxidant response was not sufficient to avoid fungal mortality. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In November 1995, the labs of Tak Wah Mak and Arlene H. Sharpe independently published their findings on the discovery of the function of CTLA-4 as a negative regulator of T-cell activation, by knocking out the gene in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, should a cell sustain only one mutation in the other RB gene, all Rb in that cell would be ineffective at inhibiting cell cycle progression, allowing cells to divide uncontrollably and eventually become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this program, Dr. Shachaf and her team found the gene silencing and apoptotic programs to be most significant in inducing tumor cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • CpG island hypermethylation is an epigenetic control aberration that is important for gene inactivation in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Mirk uses several mechanisms to block cell cycling, and Mirk increases expression of antioxidant genes that decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increase quiescent cell viability. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Trypanosoma are known to have a variant of H4 named H4.V. In Drosophila there are H4 replacement genes that are constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle that encode proteins that are identical in sequence to the major H4. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • University of Haifa, Israel, Biology FOCIS Trainee Satellite Symposia Award, FOCIS (2008) AACR, Scholar in Training Award, Aflac (2008) Young Scientist Clinical Award, FAMRI (2004-2009) Comprehensive Cancer Center Translational Award, Stanford University (2005) Richard W. Weiland Fellowship, CCIS, Stanford University (2001-2004) Dedifferentiation and Tumor Dormancy Dr. Shachaf has researched how MYC expression induces cancer in mice and the effect of its inactivation in those tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Dr. Shachaf showed that the cells derived from the tumor are "camouflaged" to appear normal but have the capability to easily revert and become tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • No consistent, large difference in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate was found in any xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group compared to normal cells, implying that reduced repair in these groups may be caused by small inherited changes in the amino acid composition ( i.e. , point mutations or small deletions) rather than by losses of major components of the repair enzyme complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro, the mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin brought about transient decreases in cellular [ATP] (0.41+/-0.04 pmol/cell to 0.31+/-0.02 pmol/cell), and activation of AMPKalpha1 (170.7%+/-31.2% basal) and the glycolytic enzyme inducible phosphofructokinase 2 (iPFK-2) (225.0%+/-46.1% basal), with the latter effects coinciding with recovery from ATP depletion. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • acute
  • Background: The aim of this study is to determine anti-cancer effect of Icariside II purified from the root of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line U937. (harvard.edu)
  • In mammalian systems, few approaches allow acute inactivation and as a consequence the immediate effects of a blockade of membrane trafficking are largely unknown. (biologists.org)
  • Membranes
  • Bates, G., Goldsmith, M.-H., Godsmith, T. (1983) Membranes of oat cells: the inverse relation between voltage and resistance is not due to H + pumps. (springer.com)
  • More recent work has suggested that CTLA-4 may function in vivo by capturing and removing B7-1 and B7-2 from the membranes of antigen-presenting cells, thus making these unavailable for triggering of CD28. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Excision repair of ultraviolet damage in the DNA of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (Groups C, D, and variant) cells was inactivated by exposure of cells to methyl methanesulfonate immediately before irradiation independent of the presence of 0 to 10% fetal calf serum. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This AMPK inactivation coincided with comparable transient decreases in other immune parameters (salivary IgA levels, serum cytokine levels, monocyte CD36 expression). (kingston.ac.uk)
  • In rare cases, it has been associated with a dangerously low white blood cell count, low platelet count, and hair loss, with a risk of agranulocytosis in rare cases Carbamazepine and phenytoin lower serum levels of mebendazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • When mammalian cells are exposed to light in the presence of photosensitizers, such as porphyrins, a number of reactions takes place. (springer.com)
  • While working at the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton, Alberta he developed a program for actuarial analysis of cancer survival with Adalei Starreveld and co-wrote with Donald Chapman a text on radiation physics, chemistry and biology in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • CAT-5001 (formerly SS1P) is a Pseudomonas exotoxin immunotoxin that targets mesothelin, which is a cell surface glycoprotein present on normal mesothelial cells that is overexpressed in numerous cancers including pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Porphyrin-sensitized photoinactivation of human cells in vitro. (springer.com)
  • For example, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that are associated with anogenital cancer readily immortalize human cells in culture while low-risk HPVs that are associated with benign lesions do not ( 19 , 22 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • However, previous investigations, including our own, have shown that overexpression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) does not prevent net telomere shortening in human endothelial cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • As a result, they produced follicles "thinner than normal", but they were confident they could develop the right method of cloning hair from human stem cells by 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • MBZ induced a dose- and time-dependent apoptotic response in human lung cancer cell lines, and apoptosis via Bcl-2 inactivation in chemoresistant melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015/16 it started a phase II clinical trial as a neoadjuvant therapy for human papillomavirus (HPV) negative head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (prior to resection surgery). (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • MBZ significantly inhibited cancer cell growth, migration, and metastatic formation of adrenocortical carcinoma, both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinal cells are not sloughed off or replaced, and are subjected to high levels of mutagenic UV radiation, and thus most pRB knock-outs occur in retinal tissue (but it's also been documented in certain skin cancers in patients from New Zealand where the amount of UV radiation is significantly higher). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Thus, in cells lacking Rb function, overexpression of p16 is not inhibitory ( 32 , 36 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • CTLA4 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed by activated T cells and transmits an inhibitory signal to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CTLA4 transmits an inhibitory signal to T cells, whereas CD28 transmits a stimulatory signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • CTLA4 is also found in regulatory T cells and contributes to its inhibitory function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • Our knowledge of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) genetics is still very limited, amplification of L-MYC , N-MYC , and C-MYC being some of the well-established genealterations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A major problem in the treatment of cancer arises from quiescent cancer cells that are relatively insensitive to most chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such residual cancer cells can cause tumor regrowth or recurrence when they reenter the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In previous studies Mirk knockout or depletion had no detectable effect on normal tissue, suggesting that the Mirk kinase inhibitor could have a selective effect on cancer cells expressing elevated levels of Mirk kinase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The progression of cells in culture to an immortalized state, although not identical, has many features in common with the development of cancer in vivo. (asm.org)
  • We employed RNA interference to determine the role of tissue transglutaminase II (TGase II) in motility of cancer cells. (docphin.com)
  • They are being studied in the treatment of some types of B-cell cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It takes a lower dose of cucurmosin to kill cancer cells than healthy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer and myeloid leukemia cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of lung cancer cell lines with MBZ caused mitotic arrest, followed by apoptotic cell death with the feature of caspase activation and cytochrome c release. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appearance of the tissue formed in this process looks normal by histology (a method used by pathologists to determine the presence of cancer cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • COIN) SERS Nanoparticles as Cell Signaling Detectors Dr. Shachaf also leads the development of the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy nanoparticles for the detection of signaling events in single cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shachaf CM.and Felsher D. W.Tumor dormancy and MYC inactivation: pushing cancer to the brink of normalcy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lately, this is considered as an incomplete scenario, despite the idea of the genome of the cancer cell undergoing a reduction of its 5-methylcytosine content when compared to its parent normal cell being correct. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsets
  • No difference in skewing was observed between the immune cell subsets. (bmj.com)
  • They also lack to B cell subsets: B1 cells (found in body cavities such as the peritoneum) and marginal zone B cells, found in the periphery of spleen follicles). (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Although it is well established that mast cell survival is dependent on stem cell factor (SCF), it has not been described how this process is regulated. (diva-portal.org)
  • tumor cell
  • The Mirk kinase inhibitor increased cleavage of the apoptotic proteins PARP and caspase 3, and increased tumor cell kill several-fold by gemcitabine and cisplatin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • viruses
  • This, coupled with targeted inactivation of Rb by oncoproteins of the DNA tumor viruses, underscores the importance of Rb in controlling the cell cycle (for a review, see reference 13 ). (asm.org)
  • sensitizes
  • Conclusions/Significance: Our results demonstrated that via targeting STAT3-related signaling, Icariside II sensitizes U937 cells to apoptosis and perhaps serves as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for AML. (harvard.edu)
  • reduction
  • In contrast, reduction of p16 expression did not occur in E7-expressing HMEC that bypassed M0, due to inactivation of Rb. (asm.org)
  • Consequently, the development of pathogen inactivation/reduction technologies for blood products has been an ongoing effort in the field of transfusion medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte reduction is the removal of white blood cells by filtration. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Concurrently, the anti-apoptotic proteins, such as bcl-xL and survivin in U937 cells, were downregulated by Icariside II. (harvard.edu)
  • The first role of CTLA-4 in inhibiting T cell responses seem to be directly via SHP-2 and PP2A dephosphorylation of TCR-proximal signalling proteins such as CD3 and LAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane potential
  • However, previous electrical studies of Vicia faba L. guard cells in FC (Blatt, 1988, Planta 174 , 187) demonstrated, in addition to a limited rise in pump current, appreciable declines in membrane conductance near and positive to the free-running membrane potential ( V m ). (springer.com)
  • Blatt, M.R. (1987a) Electrical characteristics of stomatal guard cells: the ionic basis of the membrane potential and the consequence of potassium chloride leakage from microelectrodes. (springer.com)
  • The steady-state levels of the K inactivation as a function of the membrane potential are related by an S-shaped curve similar to that which describes the steady-state Na inactivation in the squid giant axon. (rupress.org)
  • mice
  • In vivo, ten days of GCV treatment was enough to restore the increased hematocrit levels of mice implanted with encapsulated TGL-expressing and EPO-secreting cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mechanisms
  • Although the biological effects of PDI are known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the resultant damage to cells are poorly defined. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • vitro
  • Photodynamic effects on cells in vitro exposed to hematoporphyrin derivative and light. (springer.com)
  • Newly synthesized ester, ester/amide, and amide derivatives of butyrate with the capacity to induce antigen-specific T cell unresponsiveness in vivo and in vitro were tested here. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MEB also induced antigen-specific unresponsiveness in antigen-activated, but not resting or interleukin-2-activated, T cells in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, the results presented here establish MEB as a novel means of inducing anergy in CD4 + T cells both in vitro and in vivo and underscore the likelihood that MEB and/or other butyrate derivatives can be used as immunotherapeutic reagents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we tested whether MEB, MEBA, and BEB could inhibit T cell activity in vivo, and we characterized the effects of MEB on T cell activity in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore
  • Although the brief exercise bout employed here is not sufficient to cause full-fledged immunosuppression, exercise-induced transient decreases in mononuclear cell AMPK activation (as seen in this study) may cause energy depletion within individual immune cells, and therefore have an impact upon their ability to carry out their functions. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • This inhibitor selectively impairs B cell, mast cell and neutrophil functions and is therefore a potential immune-modulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In addition to its effects on tumor cells, n -butyrate has been shown to induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness in CD4 + T cells in vivo ( Gilbert and Weigle, 1993 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Other groups who have analyzed the effect of antibodies to CTLA-4 in vivo have concluded little or no effect upon motility in the context of anergic T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to CTLA-4 may exert additional effects when used in vivo, by binding and thereby depleting regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigate
  • In the present study, two mass cultures of hTERT-transduced bone marrow endothelial cells (BMhTERT) and 26 clones were employed to further investigate the immortalization process and consequences of telomere shortening. (garvan.org.au)
  • white blood
  • White blood cells - due to the effective inactivation of white blood cells in donated blood products, riboflavin and UV light treatment may be used as an alternative to gamma-irradiation for the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a serious blood transfusion related complication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma
  • Red cells, plasma and platelets can also be donated individually via a more complex process called apheresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • In an exciting new study conducted at the University Of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, researchers concluded that male pattern baldness may be caused by an inactivation of stem cells. (regrowhair.com)
  • In the experiment, the research team analyzed scalp affected by male pattern baldness compared to healthy scalp and were surprised to find that the number of stem cells located within these two regions was identical. (regrowhair.com)
  • However it was discovered that the follicles are not entirely absent, as there are stem cells in the bald scalp from which the follicles naturally arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intercytex tried to clone new hair follicles from the stem cells harvested from the back of the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company worked on what they called the "Ji Gami" process, which involved the removal of a small strip of the scalp, which is broken down into individual follicular stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first time scientists were able to grow artificial hair follicles from stem cells was in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Earlier studies showed that levels of the serine/theronine kinase Mirk/dyrk1B are elevated up to 10-fold in quiescent G 0 tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We now show that a novel small molecule Mirk kinase inhibitor blocked tumor cells from undergoing reversible arrest in a quiescent G 0 state and enabled some cells to exit quiescence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In immune cells, antigen receptors, cytokine receptors and costimulatory and accessory receptors stimulate tyrosine kinase activity and hence all have the potential to initiate PI3K signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Compounds with the capacity to induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness in CD4 + T cells can in some clinical situations be more beneficial than general immune suppressants. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, even a single injection of the ester derivative of n -butyrate 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl butyrate hydrochloride (MEB) on day 2 or 3 after immunization suppressed the generation of memory T cells capable of proliferating to antigen or of promoting a secondary antigen-specific antibody response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The n -butyrate-induced T cell unresponsiveness required antigen stimulation and was not induced in T cells exposed to n -butyrate alone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The antigen specificity of the n -butyrate-induced T cell tolerance makes butyrate a good candidate for an immunotherapeutic agent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model CTLA-4 reverses the TCR-induced 'stop signal' needed for firm contact between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • We demonstratethat BRG1 regulates the expression of MAX through direct recruitment to the MAX promoter, and thatdepletion of BRG1 strongly hinders cell growth, specifi cally in MAX-defi cient cells, heralding a syntheticlethal interaction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • follicles
  • Scientists of the Berlin Technical University in Germany took animal cells and created the follicles by using them. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • When the cell is ready to divide, pRb is phosphorylated, becomes inactive and allows cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rb restricts the cell's ability to replicate DNA by preventing its progression from the G1 (first gap phase) to S (synthesis phase) phase of the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • By keeping E2F-DP inactivated, RB1 maintains the cell in the G1 phase, preventing progression through the cell cycle and acting as a growth suppressor. (wikipedia.org)