• osmotic
  • Hyperosmotic laxatives are substances that cause the intestines to hold more water within and create an osmotic effect that stimulates a bowel movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Properties Site of action: colon Onset of Action: 12-72 hours (oral) 0.25 - 1 hour (rectal) Examples: glycerin suppositories (Hallens), sorbitol, lactulose, and PEG (Colyte, MiraLax) Lactulose works by the osmotic effect, which retains water in the colon, lowering the pH through bacterial fermentation to lactic, formic and acetic acid, and increasing colonic peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saline laxatives are non-absorbable osmotic substances that attract and retain water in the intestinal lumen, increasing intraluminal pressure that mechanically stimulates evacuation of the bowel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the maintenance of precise osmotic gradients of electrolytes is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • It is usually not pure sodium chloride-it may contain natural impurities that provide dietary minerals, or small amounts of other substances (e.g., magnesium carbonate, hydrated calcium silicate, or tricalcium phosphate) may be added to prevent lumping. (encyclopedia.com)
  • dehydration
  • The amount of water in the body is too low as can occur in dehydration . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In some people who exercise , their concern about the potential for dehydration causes them to drink more water than they lose by perspiration . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • At times of extreme dehydration, over 24% of the filtered water may be reabsorbed in the collecting duct system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metolazone is sometimes used together with loop diuretics such as furosemide or bumetanide, but these highly effective combinations can lead to dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs of dehydration may also appear in some individuals, since the body cannot conserve much (if any) of the water it takes in. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solubility
  • Conivaptan hydrochloride is an off-white or a pale yellow power with a solubility of 0.25 mg/mL in water at 23 °C. The injectable formulation consists of 20 mg conivaptan hydrochloride, 0.4 g ethanol, 1.2 g propylene glycol and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • URINE
  • The presence of these aquaporin channels in the distal nephron causes increasing water reabsorption from the urine, which becomes passively re-distributed from the nephron to systemic circulation by way of basolateral membrane channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distal convoluted tubule cells also possess a sodium-chloride symporter on the apical side, which passively allows one sodium ion and one chloride ion to diffuse together in from the lumen (where urine is forming) into the cell interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, water remains in the lumen and is excreted as urine, instead of being reabsorbed into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • chlorine
  • it can be decomposed into sodium and chlorine by passing an electrical current through it (see electrolysis ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nearly all chemical compounds that contain either sodium or chlorine are ultimately derived from salt. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen) gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluids
  • Glycogen/glucose, electrolytes, fluids, and numerous other substrates are lost faster than they can be replaced during exercise. (hammernutrition.com)
  • Approximately 55% of water intake is derived directly from fluids, 35% from food, and 10% from water produced as a byproduct of metabolism. (hammernutrition.com)
  • Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During MSUM, besides the exposure to exercise-heat stress on consecutive days (normally ranging from 5 to 8 days), ultra-runners need to consume sufficient water (through foods and fluids) to maintain euhydration throughout competition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to support consistent maintenance of euhydration along MSUM competition (2009 Al Andalus Ultimate Trail, Loja, Spain). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • Those at particular risk are athletes undergoing endurance activities and they water intake must be carefully monitored. (articlebiz.com)
  • Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These neurons, in turn, feature angiotensin type I receptors which are used by circulating angiotensin II to initiate water intake and sodium consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical exercise and heat exposure cause loss of water and therefore may induce thirst and greater water intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the reference daily intake (RDI) for total water is 3.7 litres per day (L/day) for human males older than 18, and 2.7 L/day for human females older than 18 which includes drinking water, water in beverages, and water contained in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drinking water contribution to mineral nutrients intake is also unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water generated from the biochemical metabolism of nutrients provides a significant proportion of the daily water requirements for some arthropods and desert animals, but provides only a small fraction of a human's necessary intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excessive urination and extreme thirst and increased fluid intake (especially for cold water and sometimes ice or ice water) are typical for DI. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Adequate Intake for sodium is 1.2 to 1.5 grams per day, but on average people in the United States consume 3.4 grams per day, the minimum amount that promotes hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Receptors for the pure salty taste respond best to sodium, otherwise only to a few other small monovalent cations (Li+, NH4+, and somewhat to K+). (wikipedia.org)
  • molten
  • Molten salts can also be electrolytes as, for example, when sodium chloride is molten, the liquid conducts electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, ionic liquids, which are molten salts with melting points below 100 °C, are a type of highly conductive non-aqueous electrolytes and thus have found more and more applications in fuel cells and batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • milligrams
  • To suggest that a substrate must be replaced at or near the rate it is lost, is to suggest that 1-liter water, 2000 milligrams sodium, and 700 calories per hour must be consumed. (hammernutrition.com)
  • The minimum physiological requirement for sodium is between 115 and 500 milligrams per day depending on sweating due to physical activity, and whether the person is adapted to the climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds
  • The properties of electrolytes may be exploited using electrolysis to extract constituent elements and compounds contained within the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In C4 plants, sodium is a micronutrient that aids in metabolism, specifically in regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate (involved in the biosynthesis of various aromatic compounds, and in carbon fixation) and synthesis of chlorophyll. (wikipedia.org)
  • retention
  • The name mineralocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in the retention of sodium, a mineral. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two main resulting problems: Hypertension and edema due to excessive Na+ and water retention. (wikipedia.org)