• Excretion
  • In the present study, these known ethnic differences were studied further by comparing water homeostasis and urinary cation excretion rates in whites and blacks, basally and in response to inhibition of NKCC2 with furosemide, to explore the hypothesis that NKCC2 in TAL is more active in blacks. (ahajournals.org)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea sufferers have shown to have increases in renal sodium and water excretion that are mediated by elevated plasma ANH levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • thick asce
  • The thick ascending limb (TAL), a principal nephron region for reclamation of Na by way of the Na,K,2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), 5 is a potential site for increased Na reabsorption. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11β-hydroxylase deficiency and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency - both characterized by hypertension Aminoglycoside toxicity can induce a hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis via activating the calcium sensing receptor in the thick ascending limb of the nephron, inactivating the NKCC2 cotransporter, creating a Bartter's syndrome like effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bartter syndrome is caused by mutations of genes encoding proteins that transport ions across renal cells in the thick ascending limb of the nephron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to increased flow of tubular fluid in the thick ascending limb/ increased sodium chloride (salt) concentration at the macula densa: Elevated filtration at the glomerulus or reduced reabsorption of sodium and water by the Proximal Convoluted Tubule causes the tubular fluid at the macula densa to have a higher concentration of sodium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • The unique importance of this transport operation derives from the fact that this active, energy-consuming transport process provides the main driving force for transepithelial water movement/ 12 ) Thus, the maintenance of an adequate and constant extracellular fluid and plasma volume depends crucially on the integrity of the proximal tubular Na+ transport system. (springer.com)
  • Excessive urination and extreme thirst and increased fluid intake (especially for cold water and sometimes ice or ice water) are typical for DI. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tubular fluid is diluted because the cell's walls are water-impermeable and do not lose water as NaCl is actively reabsorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • aldosterone
  • This is worsened by the secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal gland, which is secreted in response to the decrease in circulating blood and causes sodium and water retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • The TGF mechanism is a negative feedback loop in which the chloride ion concentration is sensed downstream in the nephron by the macula densa (MD), cells in the tubular wall near the end of TAL and the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • Plasma in blood is forced by blood pressure through tiny holes in capillaries into upstream end of nephron. (brainscape.com)
  • Blood in the renal vein also has exactly the right amount of water and salts. (purchon.com)
  • A hormone in our blood called Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH for short) is used to control exactly how much water is excreted. (purchon.com)
  • Total blood volume & blood pressure, water, electrolyte concentration, and the pH of the blood. (brainscape.com)
  • body's water
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) helps maintain our body's water balance. (study.com)
  • Two major hormones that regulate the body's water level are arginine vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). (wikipedia.org)
  • diuresis
  • The resulting natriuresis is of lesser magnitude than the water diuresis, leading eventually to excessive water loss and hypernatremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any osmotically active agent that is filtered by the glomerulus but not reabsorbed causes water to be retained in these segments and promotes a water diuresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • urinary
  • Adults with untreated DI may remain healthy for decades as long as enough water is consumed to offset the urinary losses. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • A reduction of total evaporative water loss consists of decreases of both respiratory and cutaneous evaporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Simplified Theoretical Reaction: C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) → 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + ~ 30ATP Cells undergoing aerobic respiration produce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, 6 molecules of water, and up to 30 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is directly used to produce energy, from each molecule of glucose in the presence of surplus oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport
  • More recently it has been recognized that in a number of pathophysiological conditions, the actions of NO on renal hemodynamics and/or nephron transport are altered. (ahajournals.org)