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  • duct
  • Low concentration of toxins in plasma are secreted into collection duct at far end of nephron. (brainscape.com)
  • so for this injecting NaCl question, that means the water can only possibly flow in from the proximal tubule, descending loop, or collecting duct. (studentdoctor.net)
  • ADH activates V2 receptors on the basolateral membrane of principal cells in the renal collecting duct, initiating a cyclic AMP-dependent process that culminates in increased production of water channels (aquaporin 2), and their insertion into the cells' luminal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs through increased transcription and insertion of water channels (Aquaporin-2) into the apical membrane of collecting tubule and collecting duct epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Increasing permeability of the inner medullary portion of the collecting duct to urea by regulating the cell surface expression of urea transporters, which facilitates its reabsorption into the medullary interstitium as it travels down the concentration gradient created by removing water from the connecting tubule, cortical collecting duct, and outer medullary collecting duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solute
  • This stops the loop of Henle from concentrating urine, which usually uses the high osmotic and solute gradient to transport solutes and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of a nonreabsorbable solute such as mannitol prevents the normal absorption of water by interposing a countervailing osmotic force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inappropriate ADH secretion causes a unrelenting increase in solute-free water ("free water") absorption by the kidneys, with two consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • A countercurrent system in the renal medulla provides the mechanism for generating a hypertonic interstitium, which allows the recovery of solute-free water from within the nephron and returning it to the venous vasculature when appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • Plasma in blood is forced by blood pressure through tiny holes in capillaries into upstream end of nephron. (brainscape.com)
  • Blood in the renal vein also has exactly the right amount of water and salts. (purchon.com)
  • A hormone in our blood called Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH for short) is used to control exactly how much water is excreted. (purchon.com)
  • Total blood volume & blood pressure, water, electrolyte concentration, and the pH of the blood. (brainscape.com)
  • concentration
  • The TGF mechanism is a negative feedback loop in which the chloride ion concentration is sensed downstream in the nephron by the macula densa (MD), cells in the tubular wall near the end of TAL and the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubular
  • Nevertheless, it is at the proximal tubular level where the bulk of water, salts, and nonelectrolytes are normally retrieved from the filtrate. (springer.com)
  • diuresis
  • The resulting natriuresis is of lesser magnitude than the water diuresis, leading eventually to excessive water loss and hypernatremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any osmotically active agent that is filtered by the glomerulus but not reabsorbed causes water to be retained in these segments and promotes a water diuresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • A reduction of total evaporative water loss consists of decreases of both respiratory and cutaneous evaporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Two major hormones that regulate the body's water level are arginine vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • Patients should also be very cautious about taking desmopressin during hot weather conditions or following strenuous exercise, as these conditions can place stress on the body's electrolyte and water balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Simplified Theoretical Reaction: C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) → 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + ~ 30ATP Cells undergoing aerobic respiration produce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, 6 molecules of water, and up to 30 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is directly used to produce energy, from each molecule of glucose in the presence of surplus oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • urinary
  • Adults with untreated DI may remain healthy for decades as long as enough water is consumed to offset the urinary losses. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • 11β-hydroxylase deficiency and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency - both characterized by hypertension Aminoglycoside toxicity can induce a hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis via activating the calcium sensing receptor in the thick ascending limb of the nephron, inactivating the NKCC2 cotransporter, creating a Bartter's syndrome like effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiologically, a reduced metabolic rate decreases endogenous heat production to prevent evaporative water loss, or more simply evaporation, and conserve energy in an environment with limited resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the common raven species, the degree of climatic seasonality is related to the magnitude of fluctuations in basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport
  • Bartter syndrome is caused by mutations of genes encoding proteins that transport ions across renal cells in the thick ascending limb of the nephron. (wikipedia.org)