• peripheral ganglia
  • Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal cord
  • Apart from the spinal cord, there are also peripheral nerves of the PNS that synapse through intermediaries or ganglia directly on the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • olfactory
  • Many consider the retina and the optic nerve (2nd cranial nerve), as well as the olfactory nerves (1st) and olfactory epithelium as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • involvement
  • One possible factor could be the natural accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia, causing neurodegeneration due to its involvement in toxic free-radical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomy
  • We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. (frontiersin.org)
  • brain
  • Most of my recent work has focused on the basal ganglia, an area deep in the brain that is dysfunctional in Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, and schizophrenia. (millersville.edu)
  • Like most parts of the brain, the basal ganglia consist of left and right sides that are virtual mirror images of each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • the current work is in broad agreement with a general trend in neuroscience of volition: although we may experience that our conscious decisions and thoughts cause our actions, these experiences are in fact based on readouts of brain activity in a network of brain areas that control voluntary action. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Also, several major degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, are specific to humans, although "models" of them have been proposed for other species. (wikipedia.org)