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  • Vocal
  • Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. (mdpi.com)
  • Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically motivated purposes: detecting predators/prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations, and sharing information. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals, and artificial agents (such as robots), and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an interdisciplinary analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Predators may use vocal cues to detect their prey (and vice versa), and a variety of animals (such as birds, frogs, dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals, coyotes, etc.) use vocalization to mark or defend their territory. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, systems have been created to analyze and playback animals calls, to investigate how vocal signaling might evolve in communicative agents, and to interact with users of spoken language technology. (frontiersin.org)
  • An animal song is a repetitive vocal utterance of animals such as birds and whales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intelligibility of an individual's own vocalization can be adjusted with audio-vocal reflexes using their own hearing (private loop), or it can be adjusted indirectly in terms of how well listeners can hear the vocalization (public loop). (wikipedia.org)
  • Devocalization (also known as ventriculocordectomy or vocal cordectomy and when performed on dogs is commonly known as debarking or bark softening) is a surgical procedure performed on dogs and cats, where tissue is removed from the animal's vocal cords to permanently reduce the volume of its vocalizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vocal individuality can convey information such as body size and weight, since heavier penguins typically emit longer and lower-pitched vocalizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • conspecific
  • Since the playbacks were done at half the amplitude at which they were recorded, it is estimated that these calls would be perceptible by elephants at distances of at least 4 km Even this may be an underestimate because animals do not respond every time they perceive a conspecific call, and they are probably less likely to respond to calls from further distances even if they do perceive them. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • We found that spectral representation of 7 kHz increased only in the ethological-rate-reared animals, whereas improved entrainment of cortical neurons was seen in animals reared in the slow- and fast-rate condition. (jneurosci.org)
  • temporal
  • Although spectral representation was not changed for animals reared in the faster or slower rate, temporal rate representation was improved. (jneurosci.org)
  • In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The term is not clearly defined in the scientific literature, though most investigators agree that an animal song must have syllabic diversity and temporal regularity akin to the repetitive and transformative patterns which define human music. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Most owner complaints about feline vocalization are either to do with the intensity and persistence of the vocalization, or the fact that it occurs at night or at other times when family members or neighbors are trying to sleep. (vcahospitals.com)
  • behaviors
  • These behaviors include lifting and stiffening of ears, vocalization, walking or running towards the concealed speaker, clustering in a tight group, and remaining motionless ("freezing"), with occasional scanning movements of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • calls
  • The 4 categories of vocalizations include contact calls, agonistic calls, ecstatic display songs or mutual display songs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact calls are vocalizations used primarily to maintain unity within a social group, to identify ones self and to maintain contact with a mate. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We found that, using the piglets' vocalization, it was possible to identify the most frequent stressful conditions at the farrowing phase, namely: pain, cold and hunger. (mdpi.com)
  • Experimentally, the Lombard effect has also been found in the vocalization of: Budgerigars Canaries Cats Chickens Common marmosets Cottontop tamarins Japanese quail Nightingales Rhesus macaques Squirrel monkey. (wikipedia.org)
  • impaired welfare
  • Distress related vocalization is of particular interest as an indicator of impaired welfare [ 1 , 2 ], and it is an objective and noninvasive procedure that has been studied to estimate pigs' welfare [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • indicator
  • Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets. (mdpi.com)
  • The data also support gakel vocalization as an indicator of stress/discomfort in chickens, which are notoriously stoic and therefore have been hard to assess for well-being, historically. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Devocalization is usually performed at the request of an animal owner (where the procedure is legally permitted). (wikipedia.org)
  • Owners or breeders generally request the procedure because of excessive animal vocalizations, complaining neighbors, or as an alternative to euthanasia due to a court order. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • There are other techniques to recognize stress in animals, e.g., a stress response as an adrenaline release can be accompanied by changes in the rates of specific types of vocalization [ 7 ] while other studies suggested an increased rate of vocalization in pigs after receiving corticotrophin injections [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • social
  • For excessive nighttime vocalization, providing a stimulating daytime routine with regular offerings of food, social play, and exploratory toys may help to program and change the schedule of the cat so that it sleeps through the night (see Nocturnal Activity). (vcahospitals.com)
  • especially
  • For some cats, especially those that are middle aged or elderly, veterinary examination is recommended to rule out potential medical causes of vocalization such as pain, endocrine dysfunction and hypertension. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Vocalizations also served to generate joint attention among conversants, especially when combined with gaze direction. (frontiersin.org)
  • field
  • By this approach, it is necessary to develop accurate tools to estimate the animal welfare status and to ensure applicability on field. (mdpi.com)
  • welfare
  • The AVMA became a meeting sponsor because its Animal Welfare Committee recognized a paucity of forums for rational discussion of beef cattle welfare. (avma.org)
  • Dr. Ken Odde, head of the K-State animal science department, said during his opening remarks, 'I think this conference is particularly timely because animal welfare is clearly not just an important issue but, I believe, a growing issue in animal agriculture. (avma.org)
  • Yet, a recent national survey by Oklahoma State University found that the welfare of farm animals ranks low on a list of social issues, said Jayson Lusk, PhD, of the OSU Department of Agricultural Economics. (avma.org)
  • His article, 'A survey to determine public opinion about the ethics and governance of farm animal welfare,' will appear in a forthcoming issue of the JAVMA . (avma.org)
  • Mike Siemens, PhD, leader of animal welfare for Cargill Meat Solutions, contended that U.S. consumers can afford to demand changes in production practices because they spend a small percentage of their income on food. (avma.org)
  • The issue of animal welfare is all about emotion, argued Steven L. Kopperud, senior vice president of the governmental relations firm Policy Directions Inc. Nevertheless, the American public is fond of farmers as well as animals, so farmers can counter welfare legislation that they deem undesirable by putting a face on the issues. (avma.org)
  • Dr. Gail C. Golab, director of the AVMA Animal Welfare Division, said the willingness and ability of producers to adopt voluntary welfare guidelines or policies depend on the resulting efficiency, cost, and market demand in addition to the effects on the animals. (avma.org)
  • It's extremely important, even though most of the policies that we use in this country in food animal production are going to be voluntary for animal welfare, that considerable amount of attention be paid to those policies,' Dr. Golab said. (avma.org)
  • I specifically want to thank Meredith Shields, Allan Schwartz, and Jeff Eyre, formerly with the Humane Society of the United States, for their friendship and the countless things they have taught me, their dedication to animal welfare, and the thousands of animals they have helped over the years. (catrescueguide.com)
  • considerable
  • After considerable public discussion and some opposition from an animal rights group, the Vancouver Park Board voted in favour of a proposal to expand the Aquarium at a cost of $100 million, funded by the Aquarium, private donors, and infrastructure grants. (wikipedia.org)
  • farm animals
  • Survey respondents said the well-being of farm animals is less important than poverty, health care, food safety, the environment, the financial well-being of farmers, and food prices. (avma.org)
  • often
  • Stress in stalled sows is often perceived as the consequence of the restraint of animals that happens in intensive production units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small whales, such as belugas, are sometimes kept in captivity and trained to perform tricks, but breeding success has been poor and the animals often die within a few months of capture. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • Temple Grandin, PhD, an associate professor of animal science at Colorado State University, spoke about how cattle handling at slaughterhouses has improved during the 35 years that she has been redesigning plants and training workers. (avma.org)
  • John Ford, a respected researcher who focuses on orca vocalizations, worked there for many years and they still fund a lot of the study. (wikipedia.org)
  • appear
  • Animals in the wild appear to be relatively free from eating disorders although their body composition fluctuates depending on seasonal and reproductive cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive
  • A) Positive reinforcement methods have revolutionized animal training and are supported by the Humane Society of the United States and many more organizations, as readers of this blog are well aware. (drsophiayin.com)
  • Create a positive, fulfilling relationship with your animal companions at any level you choose. (drsophiayin.com)
  • move
  • Other vocalizations include a high-frequency chuckle which serves as an alarm, a progression call which indicates that the group is on the move, and greeting grunts which are used by males to reassure approaching juveniles. (zooboise.org)
  • Lambeosaurus was like other hadrosaurids, and could move on both two legs and all fours, as shown by footprints of related animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • public
  • C attle roaming the range are the iconic image of the American West, but a recent video of abusive animal handling at a California slaughterhouse has increased public scrutiny of the lives and deaths of beef and dairy cattle. (avma.org)
  • together
  • The hands had four fingers, lacking the innermost finger of the generalized five-fingered tetrapod hand, while the second, third, and fourth fingers were bunched together and bore hooves, suggesting the animal could have used the hands for support. (wikipedia.org)