• symptoms
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency has potentially serious symptoms, including anemia and damage to the nerves, the researchers said. (nbcnews.com)
  • A deficiency of the latter enzyme leads to higher levels of proline and a buildup of the intermediate breakdown product pyrroline-5-carboxylate, causing the signs and symptoms of hyperprolinemia type II. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mild deficiency may not cause any discernible symptoms, but as the deficiency becomes more significant, symptoms of anemia may result, such as weakness, fatigue, light-headedness, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing and pale color to the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurological symptoms: Sensory or motor deficiencies (absent reflexes, diminished vibration or soft touch sensation), subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, seizures, or even symptoms of dementia and or other psychiatric symptoms may be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurological complex, defined as myelosis funicularis, consists of the following symptoms: Impaired perception of deep touch, pressure and vibration, loss of sense of touch, very annoying and persistent paresthesias Ataxia of dorsal chord type Decrease or loss of deep muscle-tendon reflexes Pathological reflexes - Babinski, Rossolimo and others, also severe paresis Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • A new report issued by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and published in the scientific journal Osteoporosis International 1 , shows that populations across the globe are suffering from the impact of low levels of vitamin D. The problem is widespread and on the increase, with potentially severe repercussions for overall health and fracture rates. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • Suboptimal levels of vitamin D may lead to increased risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture and, in severe cases, to the development of rickets, a softening of bones in children that can lead to skeletal fractures and deformity. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • A new US study reports that low blood concentrations of vitamin D seem to be linked to an elevated risk of developing more severe coronary artery disease. (nutri-facts.org)
  • Vitamin D defi- ciency was also related to a 20% higher frequency of severe coronary artery disease. (nutri-facts.org)
  • Casteel B. More severe heart disease found in patients with vitamin D deficiency. (nutri-facts.org)
  • Severe deficiency is treated through megadose therapy where patients are given doses around 100 000 IU to assist in raising stores faster to ensure physical health in restored to prevent further illness or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quote from p. 856: "However, these patients do not have a very severe degenerative phenotype, suggesting that there must be an alternative tissue source for vitamin A." Jati IR, Vadivel V, Nohr D, Biesalski HK. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Include more foods in your diet that have vitamin D. Although an important step, it might be the most difficult because there are only a few food sources that are naturally rich in vitamin D, including liver, egg yolks, cod liver oil and seafood such as trout, tuna, salmon, sardines and mackerel. (livestrong.com)
  • Good food sources of vitamin D include fatty fish and cod liver oil. (express.co.uk)
  • Some types of liver diseases and kidney diseases can decrease vitamin D production leading to a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver is required to transform vitamin D into 25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is an inactive metabolite of vitamin D but is a necessary precursor (building block) to create the active form of vitamin D. In liver disease, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D may not be formed, leading to a vitamin D deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with chronic liver disease or intestinal malabsorption disorders may also require larger doses of vitamin D (up to 40,000 IU or 1 mg (1000 micrograms) daily). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D is first processed in the liver, before heading to the kidneys where it becomes activated to the form 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D or alternatively named chemical calcitriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver is the site for vitamin B6 metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially the first-time description of the storage possibility of vitamin A (retinyl ester) in organs and tissues outside the liver were new findings for the research of the vitamin A metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was seen as a new alternative to the classical distribution method of vitamin A from the liver as retinol bound to a retinol binding protein (RBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium
  • In addition, a vitamin D deficiency may lead to decreased absorption of calcium by the intestines, resulting in increased production of osteoclasts that may break down a person's bone matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body does this by increasing uptake of calcium by the kidneys and continuing to take calcium away from the bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • To maintain blood levels of calcium, therapeutic vitamin D doses are sometimes administered (up to 100,000 IU or 2.5 mg daily) to patients who have had their parathyroid glands removed (most commonly kidney dialysis patients who have had tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but also to patients with primary hyperparathyroidism) or with hypoparathyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D plays an important role in which it supports calcium absorption in the body, sustaining good bone health as well as muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • When calcium in the body becomes underprovided for normal bodily functions, calcitriol, an active form of Vitamin D, pairs with parathyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together they act to assemble cells in order to increase the calcium stores taken from bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium, Vitamin D and Osteoporosis" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • If due to a lack of vitamin D, treatment is usually with vitamin D and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The findings held even after the researchers accounted for factors that might increase the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, such as having diabetes or thyroid disease, or abusing alcohol. (nbcnews.com)
  • The study found an association, meaning researchers cannot prove a cause-and-effect relationship between the drugs and vitamin B12 deficiency . (nbcnews.com)
  • But the researchers noted the finding is biologically possible: Stomach acid is needed to help the body take in vitamin B12, because the acid separates the vitamin from the protein to which it is attached. (nbcnews.com)
  • In the new study, the researchers analyzed information from 25,956 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency living in Northern California, and 184,199 patients without the condition. (nbcnews.com)
  • The researchers estimated that, for every 67 people taking acid-suppressing drugs for two or more years, one person would develop vitamin B12 deficiency. (nbcnews.com)
  • At minimum, the use of these medications identifies a population at higher risk of B12 deficiency, independent of additional risk factors," the researchers, from Kaiser Permanente in Oakland, Calif., wrote in the Dec. 11 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. (nbcnews.com)
  • The findings suggests that vitamin A may play an even greater role in immunity among younger people, researchers said. (mid-day.com)
  • A recent study led by researchers at Harvard University discovered that children of mothers who were vitamin D deficient during pregnancy had nearly double the risk for developing multiple sclerosis later in life. (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • The researchers did not examine the impact of these different sources of vitamin D. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers ablated the vitamin D receptor in a cell culture model of breast cancer and discovered accelerated primary tumor growth and increased metastases. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The researchers said that, the findings suggests vitamin A may play a vital role in the immunity among younger people. (chicagowishesh.com)
  • Menopausal women with low blood levels of vitamin D are significantly more likely to suffer from hip fractures, according to a study conducted by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine. (blogspot.com)
  • Researchers measured vitamin D blood levels in 800 white women from 40 clinics across the United States. (blogspot.com)
  • The researchers found that the women with the lowest concentrations of vitamin D had a 70 percent greater chance of suffering a hip fracture in the next seven years than the women with the highest concentrations. (blogspot.com)
  • Present study results suggest vitamin D deficiency to be the cause rather than the consequence of atherosclerosis, the researchers said. (nutri-facts.org)
  • amount of vitamin
  • Sherman, (10) who has made many important contributions to our knowledge of vitamin A, has shown in a recent communication that an amount of vitamin A sufficient to support normal growth and maintain every appearance of good health in animals, may still be insufficient to meet the added nutritive demands of successful reproduction and lactation. (freetheanimal.com)
  • Intestinal conditions that result in malabsorption of nutrients may also contribute to vitamin D deficiency by decreasing the amount of vitamin D absorbed via diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • Compiled by IOF's expert working group on nutrition, the report reviews the scope and causes of low vitamin D levels in six regions: Asia, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Africa, North America and Oceania. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • In sunny countries such as Nigeria, South Africa, and Bangladesh, there is sufficient endogenous vitamin D due to exposure to the sun. (wikipedia.org)
  • osteoporosis
  • A new report issued by IOF and published in the scientific journal Osteoporosis International, shows that populations across the globe are suffering from the impact of low levels of vitamin D, with highest rates in South Asia and the Middle East. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • fortification
  • Because the newly discovered substance was the fourth vitamin identified, it was called vitamin D. The 1928 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Adolf Windaus, who discovered the steroid 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D. Prior to the fortification of milk products with vitamin D, rickets was a major public health problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Vitamin D deficiency has become a worldwide health epidemic with clinical rates on the rise. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3453S-3457S Biesalski HK, Frank J, Beck SC, Heinrich F, Illek B, Reifen R, Gollnick H, Seeliger MW, Wissinger B, Zrenner E. Biochemical but not clinical vitamin A deficiency results from mutations in the gene for retinol binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • active form of vitamin
  • The kidneys are responsible for converting 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is the active form of vitamin D in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLP, the metabolically active form of vitamin B6, is involved in many aspects of macronutrient metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, histamine synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis and function, and gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • fracture
  • They found a while those who were frail or had poor physical function were significantly more likely to suffer from a hip fracture, the connection with vitamin D persisted even after these correlations were adjusted for. (blogspot.com)
  • optimal
  • Although there is ongoing debate as to what constitutes the optimal level of vitamin D, the report shows that regardless of whether it is defined at 50nmol/L or 75nmol/L, vitamin D status is seriously inadequate in large proportions of the population across the globe. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • However, for many people, supplementing with 2,000-4,000 IU of vitamin D daily may be necessary to achieve and maintain optimal levels. (express.co.uk)
  • findings
  • These findings suggest that prevention strategies must be initiated at the national level - especially given the increasing ageing of populations in many regions of the world. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • epidemiological study
  • An epidemiological study published in 2002 concluded that skin cancer increases could not be associated with the use of sun creams, and recommended continued use of the current campaigns as a means to reduce melanoma risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • About 12 percent of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency had taken proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for two or more years, and 4.2 percent took histamine 2 receptor antagonists. (nbcnews.com)
  • Patients who are deficient in the vital vitamin have a higher risk of developing all types of diabetes, it's been claimed. (express.co.uk)
  • MMA is elevated in 90-98% of patients with B12 deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has lower specificity as 20-25% of patients over the age of 70 have elevated levels of MMA, but 25-33% of them do not have B12 deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In collaboration with Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex and the Diabetes Association of Bangladesh, HKI began a pilot project in 2009 to improve patients' access to sight-saving Diabetic Retinopathy treatment regardless of their ability to pay. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also dealt with the therapy of micronutrient deficiency, mainly vitamin C at intensive care patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • importance of vitamin
  • Our study highlights the importance of vitamin D in the risk of high blood pressure later in life, a major health problem in the United States," Griffin said. (redorbit.com)
  • Biesalski worked on the importance of vitamin A for the development and function of the inner ear and for lung function (maturing and mucous barrier). (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • Most people get enough of this vitamin through food, but some people are at risk for deficiency, particularly if they have trouble absorbing the vitamin, according to the National Institutes of Health. (nbcnews.com)
  • Interested in the relationship between vitamin D and specific health outcomes? (vitamindcouncil.org)
  • According to research, a deficiency in Vitamin D has lead blacks to be more at risk for several health concerns, including multiple sclerosis. (blackdoctor.org)
  • He states, further, that vitamin A must be supplied in liberal proportions not only during the growth period but during the adult period as well, if a good condition of nutrition and a high degree of health and vigor are to be maintained. (freetheanimal.com)
  • First, here's a very interesting look by Stephan at Whole Health Source about how all these vitamins work in combination , specifically in the context of vitamin A toxicity. (freetheanimal.com)
  • New research put Vitamin D in the forefront of research and it trickled down to the front line health care providers. (preeclampsia.org)
  • Most health organisations recommend maintaining a vitamin D blood level of at least 30 ng/ml. (express.co.uk)
  • Vitamin A which is also known as retinol, is best known among the public health experts for its connection with blindness. (chicagowishesh.com)
  • Over the past three decades, the Government of Lesotho, in collaboration with global organizations such as The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), World Health Organization (WHO), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), has dramatically improved HIV testing and treatment coverage through comprehensive program implementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NSP data have also been used by the GOB to improve or develop nutrition and health programmes such as the national vitamin A capsule distribution program. (wikipedia.org)