• omega-6 fat
  • Omega-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid in particular, play an important role in skin barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common sources of omega-6 fatty acids in raw diets often include flaxseed, pumpkin and sunflower seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rickets
  • Vitamin D insufficiency is a common public health problem, very often unrecognized and untreated, associated with rickets, dental caries, and growth retardation in children and osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength, falls, and increased risk of fracture in adults. (hindawi.com)
  • Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) deficiency is a known cause of rickets, and has been linked to numerous health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficiency impairs bone mineralization, leading to bone softening diseases as rickets in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the newly discovered substance was the fourth vitamin identified, it was called vitamin D. The 1928 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Adolf Windaus, who discovered the steroid 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D. Prior to the fortification of milk products with vitamin D, rickets was a major public health problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, milk has been fortified with 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D per quart since the 1930s, leading to a dramatic decline in the number of rickets cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D deficiency historically used to be identified through counting cases of rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The old theory was that if someone had enough vitamin D to prevent rickets and osteomalacia, two skeletal disorders, they were considered safe from a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Vitamin D is not a single vitamin but rather refers to aid the body in absorbing calcium. (thealthbenefitsof.com)
  • Also, take Calcium and vitamin D with a supplement of magnesium and zinc a day. (justanswer.com)
  • The antihypertensive properties of vitamin D include suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renoprotective effects, direct effects on endothelial cells and calcium metabolism, inhibition of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, binds to vitamin D receptors in the intestines, bones, and kidneys to increase calcium absorption from the intestines, promote calcium deposition in bones, and decrease parathyroid hormone concentrations (PTH). (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, a vitamin D deficiency may lead to decreased absorption of calcium by the intestines, resulting in increased production of osteoclasts that may break down a person's bone matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • To maintain blood levels of calcium, therapeutic vitamin D doses are sometimes administered (up to 100,000 IU or 2.5 mg daily) to patients who have had their parathyroid glands removed (most commonly kidney dialysis patients who have had tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but also to patients with primary hyperparathyroidism) or with hypoparathyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D plays an important role in which it supports calcium absorption in the body, sustaining good bone health as well as muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • When calcium in the body becomes underprovided for normal bodily functions, calcitriol, an active form of Vitamin D, pairs with parathyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium, Vitamin D and Osteoporosis" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • When foods containing B12 are eaten, the vitamin is usually bound to protein and is released by proteases released by the pancreas in the small bowel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhodopsin is found in the retina and is composed of retinal (an active form of vitamin A) and opsin (a protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • The photopigment rhodopsin found in human rod cells is composed of retinal, a form of vitamin A, bound to an opsin protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • fortification
  • Intramuscular injections are poorly absorbed and are ineffective in delivering sufficient bioavailable vitamin A. Fortification of food with vitamin A is costly, but can be done in wheat, sugar, and milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • infants
  • Jain V, Gupta N, Kalaivani M, Jain A, Sinha A, Agarwal R. Vitamin D deficiency in healthy breastfed term infants at 3 months & their mothers in India: seasonal variation & determinants. (springer.com)
  • Instead, there are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur: Premature, very low birth weight infants - birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3.5 pounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • form of vitamin
  • The liver is required to transform vitamin D into 25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is an inactive metabolite of vitamin D but is a necessary precursor (building block) to create the active form of vitamin D. In liver disease, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D may not be formed, leading to a vitamin D deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys are responsible for converting 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is the active form of vitamin D in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diets
  • Diets deficient in vitamin D is usually an unhealthy diet or often associated with junk food. (thealthbenefitsof.com)
  • If well-planned and fortified to balance their deficiencies, vegetarian and vegan diets can become nutritionally adequate and can be appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobalamin
  • We also review diagnostic and management strategies for cobalamin deficiency. (cmaj.ca)
  • Vitamin B 12 or cobalamin deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients, 1 but it is often unrecognized or not investigated because the clinical manifestations are subtle. (cmaj.ca)
  • We summarize the current state of knowledge on cobalamin deficiency, with a particular focus on deficiency in elderly people. (cmaj.ca)
  • Cobalamin deficiency is defined in terms of the serum values of cobalamin and of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, 2 components of the cobalamin metabolic pathway. (cmaj.ca)
  • The definitions of cobalamin deficiency used in this review are shown in Box 1 . (cmaj.ca)
  • Epidemiological studies show a prevalence of cobalamin deficiency of around 20% (between 5% and 60%, depending on the definition of cobalamin deficiency used in the study) in the general population of industrialized countries. (cmaj.ca)
  • 4 , 13 , 14 , 15 The causes of cobalamin deficiency are shown in Fig. 1 and listed in Table 1 . (cmaj.ca)
  • Causes of cobalamin deficiency are shown in blue. (cmaj.ca)
  • Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, and methylmalonic acidemia among other conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcitriol
  • The vitamin is converted in the liver and kidney to calcidiol and calcitriol, respectively, and acts on specific target tissues via vitamin D receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • Vitamin D is first processed in the liver, before heading to the kidneys where it becomes activated to the form 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D or alternatively named chemical calcitriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • inadequate
  • Bone pain and lower back pain may be signs of inadequate vitamin D levels in the blood. (healthline.com)
  • Because the body cannot create retinal in sufficient amounts, a diet low in vitamin A leads to a decreased amount of rhodopsin in the eye, as the retinal is inadequate to bind with opsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanin
  • People with a darker pigment of skin or increased amounts of melanin in their skin, may have decreased production of Vitamin D. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet B radiation from the sun and reduces vitamin D production. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyroid
  • The vitamin D receptor is closely related to the thyroid, retinoid, and peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • dose
  • The results of a large double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggest that vitamin B 6 at a dose of 30 mg daily may be helpful for treating nausea in pregnancy (morning sickness). (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • occur
  • It is estimated to occur in about 6% of those under the age of 60 and 20% of those over the age of 60. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insufficiency
  • Like with non-CF individuals, the 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level determines the degree of vitamin D insufficiency and, following data published outside CF, a 25OHD level 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) is considered insufficient. (hindawi.com)
  • Ingested vitamin D is often not absorbed due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, present in 85% to 90% of individuals with CF [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)