• Rickets
  • Vitamin D insufficiency is a common public health problem, very often unrecognized and untreated, associated with rickets, dental caries, and growth retardation in children and osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength, falls, and increased risk of fracture in adults. (hindawi.com)
  • Deficiency impairs bone mineralization, leading to bone softening diseases as rickets in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the newly discovered substance was the fourth vitamin identified, it was called vitamin D. The 1928 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Adolf Windaus, who discovered the steroid 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D. Prior to the fortification of milk products with vitamin D, rickets was a major public health problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, milk has been fortified with 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D per quart since the 1930s, leading to a dramatic decline in the number of rickets cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) deficiency is a known cause of rickets, and has been linked to numerous health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D deficiency historically used to be identified through counting cases of rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The old theory was that if someone had enough vitamin D to prevent rickets and osteomalacia, two skeletal disorders, they were considered safe from a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • However, for the treatment of other conditions, B 6 has been recommended at doses as high as 300 mg daily. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • To maintain blood levels of calcium, therapeutic vitamin D doses are sometimes administered (up to 100,000 IU or 2.5 mg daily) to patients who have had their parathyroid glands removed (most commonly kidney dialysis patients who have had tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but also to patients with primary hyperparathyroidism) or with hypoparathyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globally, 65% of all children aged 6 to 59 months received two doses of vitamin A in 2013, fully protecting them against VAD (80% in the least developed countries). (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplement treatment for night blindness includes massive doses of vitamin A (200,000 IU) in the form of retinyl palmitate to be taken by mouth, which is administered two to four times a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In areas with vitamin A deficiency, it is recommended that children aged 6-59 months receive two doses annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999, 16 per cent of children in these countries received two annual doses of vitamin A. By 2007, the rate increased to 62 per cent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • When foods containing B12 are eaten, the vitamin is usually bound to protein and is released by proteases released by the pancreas in the small bowel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhodopsin is found in the retina and is composed of retinal (an active form of vitamin A) and opsin (a protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • The photopigment rhodopsin found in human rod cells is composed of retinal, a form of vitamin A, bound to an opsin protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutritional
  • However, there is little evidence that taking vitamin B 6 above nutritional needs offers benefits in the treatment of any particular illnesses, except, possibly, nausea of pregnancy (morning sickness). (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • fortification
  • Intramuscular injections are poorly absorbed and are ineffective in delivering sufficient bioavailable vitamin A. Fortification of food with vitamin A is costly, but can be done in wheat, sugar, and milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • form of vitamin
  • The liver is required to transform vitamin D into 25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is an inactive metabolite of vitamin D but is a necessary precursor (building block) to create the active form of vitamin D. In liver disease, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D may not be formed, leading to a vitamin D deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys are responsible for converting 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is the active form of vitamin D in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • When calcium in the body becomes underprovided for normal bodily functions, calcitriol, an active form of Vitamin D, pairs with parathyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diets
  • Diets deficient in vitamin D is usually an unhealthy diet or often associated with junk food. (thealthbenefitsof.com)
  • If well-planned and fortified to balance their deficiencies, vegetarian and vegan diets can become nutritionally adequate and can be appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcitriol
  • The vitamin is converted in the liver and kidney to calcidiol and calcitriol, respectively, and acts on specific target tissues via vitamin D receptors. (hindawi.com)
  • Vitamin D is first processed in the liver, before heading to the kidneys where it becomes activated to the form 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D or alternatively named chemical calcitriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • inadequate
  • Bone pain and lower back pain may be signs of inadequate vitamin D levels in the blood. (healthline.com)
  • Because the body cannot create retinal in sufficient amounts, a diet low in vitamin A leads to a decreased amount of rhodopsin in the eye, as the retinal is inadequate to bind with opsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanin
  • People with a darker pigment of skin or increased amounts of melanin in their skin, may have decreased production of Vitamin D. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet B radiation from the sun and reduces vitamin D production. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • The results of a large double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggest that vitamin B 6 at a dose of 30 mg daily may be helpful for treating nausea in pregnancy (morning sickness). (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • occur
  • Instead, there are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur: Premature, very low birth weight infants - birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3.5 pounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated to occur in about 6% of those under the age of 60 and 20% of those over the age of 60. (wikipedia.org)