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  • inference
  • Basing his views on the Constructivist theory of perception, Helmholtz (1821-1894) held that the visual system constructs visual percepts through a process of unconscious inference, in which cues are used to make probabilistic inferences about the state of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • facilitate
  • Seamless integration of greatly diverse big healthcare data technologies can not only enable us to gain deeper insights into the clinical and organizational processes but also facilitate faster and safer throughput of patients and create greater efficiencies and help improve patient flow, safety, quality of care and the overall patient experience no matter how costly it is. (springeropen.com)
  • Performance visually formats the statistical data to facilitate your quick comprehension of the state of the system. (cisco.com)
  • methods
  • This course explores the logic and styles of sociological research, focusing on the methods of formulating research problems, the design of social research, and techniques for ensuring the quality and validity of data and conclusions. (csuchico.edu)
  • 4) discuss methods for increasing statistical knowledge and familiarity in the future. (abainternational.org)
  • Various methods are used to resolve anomalies in the crust and lithosphere, shallow mantle, whole mantle, and core based on the availability of data and types of seismic waves that penetrate the region at a suitable wavelength for feature resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • visually
  • In order to determine the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, the researcher will graph the data collected and visually inspect the differences between phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • With the more mainstream use of geographic information systems, the capabilities of spatial interpolation and mapping have been tremendously improved, yet these still greatly depend on the precision and legitimacy of the source data commissioned. (wikipedia.org)
  • the only thing worse than a pie chart is several of them, for then the viewer is asked to compare quantities located in spatial disarray both within and between pies - Given their low data-density and failure to order numbers along a visual dimension, pie charts should never be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • representation
  • This provides a visual representation of the subject's behavior before application of the intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • A graph with a log scale which was not clearly labelled as such, or a graph with a log scale presented to a viewer who did not have knowledge of logarithmic scales, would generally result in a representation which made data values look of similar size whilst in fact being of widely differing magnitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contemporary usage it includes: a pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. (wikipedia.org)
  • An illustration is a visual representation such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information (such as a newspaper article), traditionally by providing a visual representation of something described in the text. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Variability in data: Because behavior is assessed repeatedly, the single-subject design allows the researcher to see how consistently the treatment changes behavior over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the baseline, data are repeatedly collected and then graphed on the behavior of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is critical that several (three to five is often recommended) data points are collected during baseline to allow the researcher to describe the effects on the target behavior during intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID 7283932 Maurus M, Kuhlmorgen B, Hartmann-Wiesner E, Pruscha H. An approach to the interpretation of the communicative meaning of visual signals in agonistic behavior of squirrel monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID 4205548 Pruscha H, Maurus M. A statistical method for the classification of behavior units occurring in primate communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • impairment
  • The research bridges basic aspects of ocular vascular physiology and the clinical features of diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, which are the most common causes of visual impairment in the U.S. and the developed world. (upenn.edu)
  • Special arrangements are made in the case of visual or hearing impairment, or physical impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • examine
  • Evolutionary paleoecology uses data from fossils and other evidence to examine how organisms and their environments change throughout time. (wikipedia.org)
  • discrete
  • Based on discrete core data for persons (55 studies and 170 rates), the distribution of rates was asymmetric and had a median value (10%-90% quantile) of 15.2 (7.7-43.0) per 100,000. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Geotechnical instrumentations, for example piezometer, tiltmeter and Global Positioning System (GPS), on the other hand, often refer to instruments installed to measure discrete point data, compared to imagery in remote sensing. (wikipedia.org)
  • randomness
  • A basic, though not quantitatively precise, way to check for problems that render a model inadequate is to conduct a visual examination of the residuals (the mispredictions of the data used in quantifying the model) to look for obvious deviations from randomness. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilize
  • Students are expected to be able to use computers to generate documents, process basic data, and utilize the World Wide Web. (csuchico.edu)
  • Recent cue recruitment experiments have shown that the adult human visual system can learn to utilize new cues through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • An autoencoder is used for unsupervised learning of efficient codings, typically for the purpose of dimensionality reduction and for learning generative models of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • To analyze the tumor control, survival outcomes, and toxicity after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for skull base metastases from systemic cancer involving the anterior visual pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multi-fraction SRS (5 x 5 Gy) is a safe treatment option associated with good local control and improved cranial nerve symptoms for patients with a skull base metastasis involving the anterior visual pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • dependent variable
  • Baseline: this phase is one in which the researcher collects data on the dependent variable without any intervention in place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intervention: this phase is one in which the researcher introduces an independent variable (the intervention) and then collects data on the dependent variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • One problem with the R2 as a measure of model validity is that it can always be increased by adding more variables into the model, except in the unlikely event that the additional variables are exactly uncorrelated with the dependent variable in the data sample being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • The visual system can detect motion both using a simple mechanism based on information from multiple clusters of neurons as well as by aggregate through by integrating multiple cues including contrast, form, and texture. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Compiling and standardizing data can also be done efficiently and usefully given the right tools and processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seismic tomography is similar to medical x-ray computed tomography (CT scan) in that a computer processes receiver data to produce a 3D image, although CT scans use attenuation instead of traveltime difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Remote sensing in geology is remote sensing used in the geological sciences as a data acquisition method complementary to field observation, because it allows mapping of geological characteristics of regions without physical contact with the areas being explored. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of the other data characteristics, there was very little difference among the scale formats in terms of variation about the mean, skewness or kurtosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • graph
  • In statistics, a misleading graph, also known as a distorted graph, is a graph that misrepresents data, constituting a misuse of statistics and with the result that an incorrect conclusion may be derived from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Logarithmic (often referred to as log) scales can be a very valid means of representing data, however if used without clearly being labelled as so, or displayed to a reader who is unfamiliar with the concept of log scales, a graph using a log scale can be misleading. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Typology) visualising step-wise sets of instructions in a technical manual communicating subtle thematic tone in a narrative linking brands to the ideas of human expression, individuality and creativity making a reader laugh or smile for fun (to make laugh) funny A graph or chart is an information graphic that represents tabular, numeric data. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Apophenia, also known as patternicity, or agenticity, is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In this paper, we have surveyed the state-of-the-art security and privacy challenges in big data as applied to healthcare industry, assessed how security and privacy issues occur in case of big healthcare data and discussed ways in which they may be addressed. (springeropen.com)
  • You may choose specific counters to return data describing changing activity levels in your system, or you may choose to react as events occur. (cisco.com)
  • An R2 (coefficient of determination) close to one does not guarantee that the model fits the data well, because as Anscombe's quartet shows, a high R2 can occur in the presence of misspecification of the functional form of a relationship or in the presence of outliers that distort the true relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • advancement
  • Big data, no matter how useful for the advancement of medical science and vital to the success of all healthcare organizations, can only be used if security and privacy issues are addressed. (springeropen.com)
  • illustration
  • For purposes of illustration, Figure 20-4 shows active operating system conditions with inactive Cisco CallManager data. (cisco.com)
  • units
  • For example, log scales may give a height of 1 "unit" for a value of 10 in the data and a height of 6 "units" for a value of 1000000 (1x10^6) in the data. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Since the visual system is dominant in many species, especially humans, visual cues are a large source of information in how the world is perceived. (wikipedia.org)
  • features
  • A time delay neural network (TDNN) is a feedforward architecture for sequential data that recognizes features independent of sequence position. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred.It can also be used for architecture. (wikipedia.org)
  • provide
  • Even without pooling of data, the orderly sorting of data with meta-analytic techniques can provide useful insights into the structure of the relevant literature [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • models
  • In fact, digitization of health and patient data is undergoing a dramatic and fundamental shift in the clinical, operating and business models and generally in the world of economy for the foreseeable future. (springeropen.com)
  • In other words, the data need not be random (as in nearly all other learning models), but can be chosen arbitrarily by "nature" or even an adversary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seismic tomography uses seismic records to create 2D and 3D images of subsurface anomalies by solving large inverse problems such that generate models consistent with observed data. (wikipedia.org)
  • P-wave data are used in most local models and global models in areas with sufficient earthquake and seismograph density. (wikipedia.org)
  • S- and surface wave data are used in global models when this coverage is not sufficient, such as in ocean basins and away from subduction zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • versus
  • Without log scales, comparing quantities such as 10^3 versus 10^9 becomes impractical from a visual perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • observation
  • hat {\beta }}),} with yi denoting the ith response in the data set and xi the vector of explanatory variables, each set at the corresponding values found in the ith observation in the data set. (wikipedia.org)
  • intervention
  • If there is a clear distinction between baseline and intervention, and then the data returns to the same trends/level during reversal, a functional relation between the variables is inferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • collection
  • Follow the APA Code of Ethics (Standard 8: Research and Publication) in the treatment of human and nonhuman participants in the design, data collection, interpretation, and reporting of psychological research. (annamaria.edu)
  • Under the leadership of principal investigator Richard C. Gershon, a team of more than 300 scientists from nearly 100 academic institutions were charged with developing a set of tools to enhance data collection in large cohort studies and to advance the neurobehavioral research enterprise. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • However, in single-subject designs, these decisions are often made as the data are collected. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • To ensure a secure and trustworthy big data environment, it is essential to identify the limitations of existing solutions and envision directions for future research. (springeropen.com)
  • Safe and secure data is a crucial aspect of successful epidemiologic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • available
  • There is a wealth of data available on the incidence of schizophrenia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This approach has the convenience of being able to employ already available data from various surveying sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • These became more widely available in the 1960s with the expansion of global seismic networks and in the 1970s when digital seismograph data archives were established. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the model has been estimated over some, but not all, of the available data, then the model using the estimated parameters can be used to predict the held-back data. (wikipedia.org)
  • correct
  • If the model fit to the data were correct, the residuals would approximate the random errors that make the relationship between the explanatory variables and the response variable a statistical relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • These inferences are based on prior experience, assuming that the most commonly correct interpretation of a cue will continue to hold true. (wikipedia.org)
  • order
  • In order to achieve time-shift invariance, delays are added to the input so that multiple data points (points in time) are analyzed together. (wikipedia.org)
  • difficult
  • However, deciding on the allowable uses of data while preserving security and patient's right to privacy is a difficult task. (springeropen.com)
  • Making a pie chart 3D or adding a slant will make interpretation difficult due to distorted effect of perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often much of this information is lost or distorted by the fossilization process or diagenesis of the enclosing sediments, making interpretation difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • predict
  • Big healthcare data has considerable potential to improve patient outcomes, predict outbreaks of epidemics, gain valuable insights, avoid preventable diseases, reduce the cost of healthcare delivery and improve the quality of life in general. (springeropen.com)
  • problem
  • The data received at seismometers are used to solve an inverse problem, wherein the locations of reflection and refraction of the wave paths are determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Data can be sent to us as often as you need: six-month checks, retesting, troubleshooting or after analyzer maintenance. (mainestandards.com)
  • Remote sensing data is often visualized using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Log scales put the data values in terms of a chosen number (the base of the log) to a particular power, the base is often e (2.71828. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • Another example is the UNC Health Care (UNCHC), which is a non-profit integrated healthcare system in North Carolina that has implemented a new system allowing clinicians to rapidly access and analyze unstructured patient data using natural-language processing. (springeropen.com)
  • charts
  • The use of superfluous dimensions not used to display the data of interest is discouraged for charts in general, not only for pie charts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • This behavioral derivation led to neural network models, often called the Additive and Shunting models today (see Research), that include cell bodies, axons, and synapses in which short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) traces have a natural interpretation in terms of neural potentials, signals, and the regulation of chemical transmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis
  • Work on visualization tools for area-based spatial data has taken place within the framework of existing statistical and cartographic software, independently of ViSC software such as Iris or AVS (Earnshaw and Wiseman 1992).This may be in part due to the way in which visualization of this type of spatial data has grown out of initial concerns with the lack of spatial analysis facilities in GIS systems. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • 8) data analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The algorithm measures the similarity of relations between pairs of words (e.g., the similarity between the pairs HAND:PALM and FOOT:SOLE) by statistical analysis of a large collection of text. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grossberg knew no neuroscience when he derived his first neural models in 1957-58 from a real-time analysis of behavioral learning data. (wikipedia.org)
  • tools
  • The provision of specialist tools for exploring spatial properties of the data, in addition to the linking of a map with graphical views. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • Article 47g of the Broadcasting Act imposes the obligation to gradually ensure the availability of programmes provided for disabled persons with sight dysfunction and hearing dysfunction on providers of on-demand audiovisual media services through the introduction of appropriate tools such as audio-description, subtitles and interpretations into sign language. (gov.pl)
  • results
  • However, it also has disadvantages, including false-positive results after deterioration of the enzyme activity by exposure to high temperature and humidity, dependence on visual evaluation, and quenching by hemoglobin. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The effect is of a magnitude that remains close to the limit of detectability, or many measurements are necessary because of the very low statistical significance of the results. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The control chart, also known as the 'Shewhart chart' or 'process-behavior chart' is a statistical tool intended to assess the nature of variation in a process and to facilitate forecasting and management. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • 7 . One or more computer readable media as recited in claim 1 , wherein the plurality of instructions to encode the smoothness constraint comprises instructions that cause the one or more processors to generate Joint Probability Data Association Filter (JPDAF) state transition probabilities. (google.ca)
  • paper
  • We modified the macroscopic visual Beutler enzyme spot test by adding extraction of blood components from filter paper, deproteinization with acetone-methanol, and quantification and recording by a fluorescent microplate reader and personal computer. (aaccjnls.org)
  • patients
  • Twenty-three percent of patients achieved improvements in visual function beyond the MCID threshold and 35% saw improvement beyond the MDC. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thirty-two percent of RESIO patients scheduled for first cataract surgery had a pre-operative visual function score of 90 or higher on the visual functioning VF-14 scale (where 100 is full visual functioning). (beds.ac.uk)
  • high
  • A plausible explanation for this is the very high levels of pre-operative visual functioning. (beds.ac.uk)
  • With such high levels of visual function, the scope for improvements in functioning is very limited. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Capabilities generally classified as AI as of 2017[update] include successfully understanding human speech, competing at a high level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomous cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, military simulations, and interpreting complex data, including images and videos. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • The provision of a wide range of cartographical and statistical views of data in linked windows. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • For example, in programmes transmitted via terrestrial digital television, programmes with subtitles for hearing impaired persons (data for the 3rd quarter of 2015) range from 5.5% (one of the commercial sports channels) to 36.5% (TVP Channel 1) of the transmission time, excluding advertising and teleshopping. (gov.pl)
  • present
  • 2011 present aura x data of the extension needed in airway rights own 23 27 1982 after normative journey in particular interests and discourses. (cdmw.de)
  • available
  • Whatever the reason, it would be extremely interesting to see whether ViSC products could in fact be used for the visualization of area-based data, since they are already available to the academic community and structures have been put in place to support them and this is also suggested as a topic for future research. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • s complete 12 TB data set is publicly available at the Open Connectome Project. (wikipedia.org)