**analyses**- Use appropriate statistical analyses to facilitate interpretation of measurements. (annamaria.edu)
- Therefore, this workshop will provide a basic overview of statistical analyses typically employed for group level designs. (abainternational.org)
- We will cover rationales for learning more about statistical analyses, review common statistical methods, and examine how these methods are presented in the scientific literature. (abainternational.org)
- Such tools permit a range of quantitative analyses, such as using different wavelengths of collected data sets in various Red-Green-Blue configurations to produce false color imagery to reveal key features. (wikipedia.org)
- The NIH Toolbox will support scientific discovery by bringing a common language to research questions - both with respect to the primary study aims and to those arising from secondary data analyses. (wikipedia.org)

**analysis**- Areas amenable to student research are: issues related to health economics and policy, evaluation (accuracy and repeatability) of screening tests, statistical analysis of visual function data, and interpretation of fundus images as potential risk factor for disease progression or treatment failure. (upenn.edu)
- Then there are his technical skills, ranging from statistical analysis of economic data to interpretation of literary and visual materials. (wikipedia.org)
- Data from treatment or intervention studies have often been pooled using meta-analysis [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In fact, in many fields, statistical analysis is viewed as the gold standard for evaluation and interpretation of data (Sullivan, 2011). (abainternational.org)
- In contrast, a hallmark of the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the use of single subject research methods, that rely on visual inspection of the data (Kazdin, 2010). (abainternational.org)
- Temporal Visual Analytics with specific focus on visual analytics for computational movement analysis. (icaci.org)
- Statistical analysis provided for easy interpretation. (mainestandards.com)
- Statistical analysis of BGR data. (vin.com)
- Emphasis is placed on the analysis of anthropological data. (csuchico.edu)
- The statistical data that is retrieved through Performance provides the information that you need for analysis and interpretation of any local or remote Cisco CallManager system. (cisco.com)
- Statistical software are specialized computer programs for analysis in statistics and econometrics. (wikipedia.org)
- ADaMSoft - a generalized statistical software with data mining algorithms and methods for data management ADMB - a software suite for non-linear statistical modeling based on C++ which uses automatic differentiation Bayesian Filtering Library Chronux - for neurobiological time series data DataMelt (DMelt) - Java-based statistical analysis framework for scientists and engineers. (wikipedia.org)
- Because the statistical models used to draw up such research are complex, the data analysis and the interpretation of results should be carried out by qualified statisticians. (wikipedia.org)
- Data availability and quality Since spatial epidemiology is almost entirely based on the analysis of data and its various visual representations, data collection methods must be routine, accurate, and publicly available. (wikipedia.org)
- In statistics, regression validation is the process of deciding whether the numerical results quantifying hypothesized relationships between variables, obtained from regression analysis, are acceptable as descriptions of the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Logistic regression with binary data is another area in which graphical residual analysis can be difficult. (wikipedia.org)
- Cross-validation is the process of assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. (wikipedia.org)
- PMID 806027 Hohne A, Maurus M. Semiautomatic conversion of behavioral data from film to paper tape for computer analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Community paleoecology uses statistical analysis to examine the composition and distribution of groups of plants or animals. (wikipedia.org)
- The environmental complexity factor is normally tackled through statistical analysis of the available numerical data (quantitative paleontology or paleostatistics), while the study of post-mortem processes is known as the field of taphonomy. (wikipedia.org)
- A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. (wikipedia.org)
- However, in performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make choices which can affect the results, including deciding how to search for studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing not to account for publication bias. (wikipedia.org)
- Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by the Cochrane Collaboration, and use "meta-analysis" to refer to statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of 'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of systematic reviews. (wikipedia.org)
- The historical roots of meta-analysis can be traced back to 17th century studies of astronomy, while a paper published in 1904 by the statistician Karl Pearson in the British Medical Journal which collated data from several studies of typhoid inoculation is seen as the first time a meta-analytic approach was used to aggregate the outcomes of multiple clinical studies. (wikipedia.org)
- The statistical theory surrounding meta-analysis was greatly advanced by the work of Nambury S. Raju, Larry V. Hedges, Harris Cooper, Ingram Olkin, John E. Hunter, Jacob Cohen, Thomas C. Chalmers, Robert Rosenthal, Frank L. Schmidt, and Douglas G. Bonett. (wikipedia.org)
- Conceptually, a meta-analysis uses a statistical approach to combine the results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. (wikipedia.org)
- A meta-analysis is a statistical overview of the results from one or more systematic reviews. (wikipedia.org)
- It was derived from the Bayesian network and a statistical algorithm called Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis. (wikipedia.org)

**quantitative**- Research Methods/ Quantitative Literacy - Use descriptive and inferential statistical methods to describe and evaluate empirical data. (annamaria.edu)
- Accurately interpret quantitative visual aids. (annamaria.edu)
- Edward Tufte, a prominent American statistician noted why tables may be preferred to pie charts in The Visual Display of Quantitative Information: Tables are preferable to graphics for many small data sets. (wikipedia.org)

**graphs**- This is followed by a section of 16 more complex questions, displayed on the screen, involving interpretation of statistical data and graphs, and problem solving. (wikipedia.org)
- Even when constructed to accurately display the characteristics of their data, graphs can be subject to different interpretation. (wikipedia.org)
- Misleading graphs may be created intentionally to hinder the proper interpretation of data or accidentally due to unfamiliarity with graphing software, misinterpretation of data, or because data cannot be accurately conveyed. (wikipedia.org)
- The field of data visualization describes ways to present information that avoids creating misleading graphs. (wikipedia.org)
- The use of graphs where they are not needed can lead to unnecessary confusion/interpretation. (wikipedia.org)

**mathematical**- Three-dimensional localization of EEG events within the brain, based on mathematical data and coordination with magnetic resonance imaging. (vin.com)
- Electives must be courses with significant mathematical/statistical content as determined by faculty of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics. (csuchico.edu)

**methods**- This course explores the logic and styles of sociological research, focusing on the methods of formulating research problems, the design of social research, and techniques for ensuring the quality and validity of data and conclusions. (csuchico.edu)
- 4) discuss methods for increasing statistical knowledge and familiarity in the future. (abainternational.org)
- She is combining analytical and visual techniques and is particularly interested in visual interpretation of results of spatial and spatio-temporal statistical methods. (icaci.org)
- Various methods are used to resolve anomalies in the crust and lithosphere, shallow mantle, whole mantle, and core based on the availability of data and types of seismic waves that penetrate the region at a suitable wavelength for feature resolution. (wikipedia.org)
- for data collected over time, also plots of residuals against time drift in the errors (data collected over time): run charts of the response and errors versus time independence of errors: lag plot normality of errors: histogram and normal probability plot Graphical methods have an advantage over numerical methods for model validation because they readily illustrate a broad range of complex aspects of the relationship between the model and the data. (wikipedia.org)
- One common situation when numerical validation methods take precedence over graphical methods is when the number of parameters being estimated is relatively close to the size of the data set. (wikipedia.org)

**inspection**- Using simple visual inspection, an experienced electroencephalographer can provide a remarkably close estimate of the frequency content of an EEG epoch. (vin.com)
- Sometimes, visual inspection of the data demonstrates results that statistical tests fail to find. (wikipedia.org)

**bias**- However, over the last decade there has been a growing appreciation that reviews should be based on data that are as complete and as free of bias as possible [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In general, single-subject designs have been shown to reduce interpretation bias for counselors when doing therapy. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average. (wikipedia.org)

**assumptions**- Research in this area is remarkable because (1) the algorithms and proofs tend to be very simple and beautiful, and (2) the model makes no statistical assumptions about the data. (wikipedia.org)
- The accuracy of the model is limited by availability and accuracy of seismic data, wave type utilized, and assumptions made in the model. (wikipedia.org)

**facilitate**- Seamless integration of greatly diverse big healthcare data technologies can not only enable us to gain deeper insights into the clinical and organizational processes but also facilitate faster and safer throughput of patients and create greater efficiencies and help improve patient flow, safety, quality of care and the overall patient experience no matter how costly it is. (springeropen.com)
- Performance visually formats the statistical data to facilitate your quick comprehension of the state of the system. (cisco.com)

**graphical**- Interpret and produce graphical representations of data. (annamaria.edu)
- Using the visual formats provided, you can display Cisco CallManager data in graphical, histogram, or report form. (cisco.com)

**analytical**- These databases provide diverse types of information including metabolite and pathway information, reference spectra, raw analytical data, metabolite concentrations, metabolic phenotypes and systematically described study designs and experimental protocols. (frontiersin.org)
- Exposure assessment and mapping Typically always seen as an analytical weakness, the quality of exposure data, or reported accuracy of the spatial reach of epidemics, is especially important in spatial epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)

**describe**- It is critical that several (three to five is often recommended) data points are collected during baseline to allow the researcher to describe the effects on the target behavior during intervention. (wikipedia.org)

**visually**- In order to determine the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, the researcher will graph the data collected and visually inspect the differences between phases. (wikipedia.org)

**spatial**- With the more mainstream use of geographic information systems, the capabilities of spatial interpolation and mapping have been tremendously improved, yet these still greatly depend on the precision and legitimacy of the source data commissioned. (wikipedia.org)
- the only thing worse than a pie chart is several of them, for then the viewer is asked to compare quantities located in spatial disarray both within and between pies - Given their low data-density and failure to order numbers along a visual dimension, pie charts should never be used. (wikipedia.org)

**representation**- This provides a visual representation of the subject's behavior before application of the intervention. (wikipedia.org)
- A graph with a log scale which was not clearly labelled as such, or a graph with a log scale presented to a viewer who did not have knowledge of logarithmic scales, would generally result in a representation which made data values look of similar size whilst in fact being of widely differing magnitudes. (wikipedia.org)
- In contemporary usage it includes: a pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. (wikipedia.org)
- An illustration is a visual representation such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. (wikipedia.org)
- The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information (such as a newspaper article), traditionally by providing a visual representation of something described in the text. (wikipedia.org)

**Analytics**- He is chair of the ICA commission on Visual Analytics . (icaci.org)
- She is co-chair of the ICA commission on Visual Analytics . (icaci.org)
- This is a workshop of the Commision on Visual Analytics of the International Cartographic Association . (icaci.org)
- As noted above, big data analytics in healthcare carries many benefits, promises and presents great potential for transforming healthcare, yet it raises manifold barriers and challenges. (springeropen.com)

**computational**- V. Vapnik, A. Chervonenkis Theory of Probability and its Applications, 16(2):264-280, 1971 Description: Computational learning theory, VC theory, statistical uniform convergence and the VC dimension. (wikipedia.org)

**representations**- Disease Mapping Disease maps are visual representations of intricate geographic data that provide a quick overview of said information. (wikipedia.org)

**results**- Results are graphed for easy visual evaluation. (mainestandards.com)
- A percent difference plot is provided for easy visual evaluation of results. (mainestandards.com)
- The next section details the types of plots to use to test different aspects of a model and gives the correct interpretations of different results that could be observed for each type of plot. (wikipedia.org)
- Basically, it produces a weighted average of the included study results and this approach has several advantages: Results can be generalized to a larger population, The precision and accuracy of estimates can be improved as more data is used. (wikipedia.org)

**behavior**- Variability in data: Because behavior is assessed repeatedly, the single-subject design allows the researcher to see how consistently the treatment changes behavior over time. (wikipedia.org)
- During the baseline, data are repeatedly collected and then graphed on the behavior of interest. (wikipedia.org)
- PMID 7283932 Maurus M, Kuhlmorgen B, Hartmann-Wiesner E, Pruscha H. An approach to the interpretation of the communicative meaning of visual signals in agonistic behavior of squirrel monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
- PMID 4205548 Pruscha H, Maurus M. A statistical method for the classification of behavior units occurring in primate communication. (wikipedia.org)

**researchers**- Researchers are therefore faced regularly with new types of raw data requiring specialized algorithms for data handling and processing with the literature laden with examples of software offering new capabilities. (frontiersin.org)
- With the NIH Toolbox, researchers can assess function using a common metric and can "crosswalk" among measures, supporting the pooling and sharing of large data sets. (wikipedia.org)

**impairment**- The research bridges basic aspects of ocular vascular physiology and the clinical features of diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, which are the most common causes of visual impairment in the U.S. and the developed world. (upenn.edu)
- Special arrangements are made in the case of visual or hearing impairment, or physical impairment. (wikipedia.org)

**regression**- The validation process can involve analyzing the goodness of fit of the regression, analyzing whether the regression residuals are random, and checking whether the model's predictive performance deteriorates substantially when applied to data that were not used in model estimation. (wikipedia.org)
- The interpretation of this output layer value is the same as a regression model in statistics. (wikipedia.org)

**different**- Then, we focus on the big data privacy issue in healthcare, by mentioning various laws and regulations established by different regulatory bodies and pointing out some feasible techniques used to ensure the patient's privacy. (springeropen.com)
- Each report form offers a different visual rendition of the statistical data. (cisco.com)
- Charts are often used to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationships between different parts of the data. (wikipedia.org)

**examine**- Evolutionary paleoecology uses data from fossils and other evidence to examine how organisms and their environments change throughout time. (wikipedia.org)

**discrete**- Based on discrete core data for persons (55 studies and 170 rates), the distribution of rates was asymmetric and had a median value (10%-90% quantile) of 15.2 (7.7-43.0) per 100,000. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Geotechnical instrumentations, for example piezometer, tiltmeter and Global Positioning System (GPS), on the other hand, often refer to instruments installed to measure discrete point data, compared to imagery in remote sensing. (wikipedia.org)

**therefore**- Therefore, if the residuals appear to behave randomly, it suggests that the model fits the data well. (wikipedia.org)

**randomness**- A basic, though not quantitatively precise, way to check for problems that render a model inadequate is to conduct a visual examination of the residuals (the mispredictions of the data used in quantifying the model) to look for obvious deviations from randomness. (wikipedia.org)

**typically**- An autoencoder is used for unsupervised learning of efficient codings, typically for the purpose of dimensionality reduction and for learning generative models of data. (wikipedia.org)

**pathway**- To analyze the tumor control, survival outcomes, and toxicity after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for skull base metastases from systemic cancer involving the anterior visual pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- Multi-fraction SRS (5 x 5 Gy) is a safe treatment option associated with good local control and improved cranial nerve symptoms for patients with a skull base metastasis involving the anterior visual pathway. (biomedcentral.com)

**decades**- Numerous studies over the last few decades have presented original data on the incidence of schizophrenia, and several scholarly reviews have collated these studies [ 2 - 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

**dependent variable**- Baseline: this phase is one in which the researcher collects data on the dependent variable without any intervention in place. (wikipedia.org)
- Intervention: this phase is one in which the researcher introduces an independent variable (the intervention) and then collects data on the dependent variable. (wikipedia.org)
- One problem with the R2 as a measure of model validity is that it can always be increased by adding more variables into the model, except in the unlikely event that the additional variables are exactly uncorrelated with the dependent variable in the data sample being used. (wikipedia.org)

**processes**- Compiling and standardizing data can also be done efficiently and usefully given the right tools and processes. (wikipedia.org)
- Seismic tomography is similar to medical x-ray computed tomography (CT scan) in that a computer processes receiver data to produce a 3D image, although CT scans use attenuation instead of traveltime difference. (wikipedia.org)

**characteristics**- Remote sensing in geology is remote sensing used in the geological sciences as a data acquisition method complementary to field observation, because it allows mapping of geological characteristics of regions without physical contact with the areas being explored. (wikipedia.org)
- In terms of the other data characteristics, there was very little difference among the scale formats in terms of variation about the mean, skewness or kurtosis. (wikipedia.org)

**graph**- In statistics, a misleading graph, also known as a distorted graph, is a graph that misrepresents data, constituting a misuse of statistics and with the result that an incorrect conclusion may be derived from it. (wikipedia.org)
- Logarithmic (often referred to as log) scales can be a very valid means of representing data, however if used without clearly being labelled as so, or displayed to a reader who is unfamiliar with the concept of log scales, a graph using a log scale can be misleading. (wikipedia.org)
- A Typology) visualising step-wise sets of instructions in a technical manual communicating subtle thematic tone in a narrative linking brands to the ideas of human expression, individuality and creativity making a reader laugh or smile for fun (to make laugh) funny A graph or chart is an information graphic that represents tabular, numeric data. (wikipedia.org)

**patterns**- Apophenia, also known as patternicity, or agenticity, is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data. (wikipedia.org)

**occur**- In this paper, we have surveyed the state-of-the-art security and privacy challenges in big data as applied to healthcare industry, assessed how security and privacy issues occur in case of big healthcare data and discussed ways in which they may be addressed. (springeropen.com)
- You may choose specific counters to return data describing changing activity levels in your system, or you may choose to react as events occur. (cisco.com)
- An R2 (coefficient of determination) close to one does not guarantee that the model fits the data well, because as Anscombe's quartet shows, a high R2 can occur in the presence of misspecification of the functional form of a relationship or in the presence of outliers that distort the true relationship. (wikipedia.org)

**advancement**- Big data, no matter how useful for the advancement of medical science and vital to the success of all healthcare organizations, can only be used if security and privacy issues are addressed. (springeropen.com)

**illustration**- For purposes of illustration, Figure 20-4 shows active operating system conditions with inactive Cisco CallManager data. (cisco.com)

**units**- For example, log scales may give a height of 1 "unit" for a value of 10 in the data and a height of 6 "units" for a value of 1000000 (1x10^6) in the data. (wikipedia.org)

**features**- The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred.It can also be used for architecture. (wikipedia.org)
- A time delay neural network (TDNN) is a feedforward architecture for sequential data that recognizes features independent of sequence position. (wikipedia.org)

**provide**- Even without pooling of data, the orderly sorting of data with meta-analytic techniques can provide useful insights into the structure of the relevant literature [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

**research**- Follow the APA Code of Ethics (Standard 8: Research and Publication) in the treatment of human and nonhuman participants in the design, data collection, interpretation, and reporting of psychological research. (annamaria.edu)
- To ensure a secure and trustworthy big data environment, it is essential to identify the limitations of existing solutions and envision directions for future research. (springeropen.com)
- Safe and secure data is a crucial aspect of successful epidemiologic research. (wikipedia.org)
- Under the leadership of principal investigator Richard C. Gershon, a team of more than 300 scientists from nearly 100 academic institutions were charged with developing a set of tools to enhance data collection in large cohort studies and to advance the neurobehavioral research enterprise. (wikipedia.org)

**models**- In fact, digitization of health and patient data is undergoing a dramatic and fundamental shift in the clinical, operating and business models and generally in the world of economy for the foreseeable future. (springeropen.com)
- In other words, the data need not be random (as in nearly all other learning models), but can be chosen arbitrarily by "nature" or even an adversary. (wikipedia.org)
- Seismic tomography uses seismic records to create 2D and 3D images of subsurface anomalies by solving large inverse problems such that generate models consistent with observed data. (wikipedia.org)
- P-wave data are used in most local models and global models in areas with sufficient earthquake and seismograph density. (wikipedia.org)
- S- and surface wave data are used in global models when this coverage is not sufficient, such as in ocean basins and away from subduction zones. (wikipedia.org)

**versus**- Without log scales, comparing quantities such as 10^3 versus 10^9 becomes impractical from a visual perspective. (wikipedia.org)

**generate**- Students are expected to be able to use computers to generate documents, process basic data, and utilize the World Wide Web. (csuchico.edu)

**observation**- hat {\beta }}),} with yi denoting the ith response in the data set and xi the vector of explanatory variables, each set at the corresponding values found in the ith observation in the data set. (wikipedia.org)

**intervention**- If there is a clear distinction between baseline and intervention, and then the data returns to the same trends/level during reversal, a functional relation between the variables is inferred. (wikipedia.org)

**uses**- However, deciding on the allowable uses of data while preserving security and patient's right to privacy is a difficult task. (springeropen.com)
- Classic paleoecology uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past. (wikipedia.org)

**area**- A rapidly developing area is the software-aided biological interpretation of metabolic profiles. (frontiersin.org)

**made**- However, in single-subject designs, these decisions are often made as the data are collected. (wikipedia.org)

**computer**- Statistical computer packages are introduced and used. (csuchico.edu)

**available**- There is a wealth of data available on the incidence of schizophrenia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This approach has the convenience of being able to employ already available data from various surveying sources. (wikipedia.org)
- These became more widely available in the 1960s with the expansion of global seismic networks and in the 1970s when digital seismograph data archives were established. (wikipedia.org)
- If the model has been estimated over some, but not all, of the available data, then the model using the estimated parameters can be used to predict the held-back data. (wikipedia.org)

**order**- In order to achieve time-shift invariance, delays are added to the input so that multiple data points (points in time) are analyzed together. (wikipedia.org)

**difficult**- Making a pie chart 3D or adding a slant will make interpretation difficult due to distorted effect of perspective. (wikipedia.org)
- Often much of this information is lost or distorted by the fossilization process or diagenesis of the enclosing sediments, making interpretation difficult. (wikipedia.org)

**predict**- Big healthcare data has considerable potential to improve patient outcomes, predict outbreaks of epidemics, gain valuable insights, avoid preventable diseases, reduce the cost of healthcare delivery and improve the quality of life in general. (springeropen.com)

**problem**- The data received at seismometers are used to solve an inverse problem, wherein the locations of reflection and refraction of the wave paths are determined. (wikipedia.org)

**often**- Data can be sent to us as often as you need: six-month checks, retesting, troubleshooting or after analyzer maintenance. (mainestandards.com)
- Remote sensing data is often visualized using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools. (wikipedia.org)
- Log scales put the data values in terms of a chosen number (the base of the log) to a particular power, the base is often e (2.71828. (wikipedia.org)

**rapidly**- Another example is the UNC Health Care (UNCHC), which is a non-profit integrated healthcare system in North Carolina that has implemented a new system allowing clinicians to rapidly access and analyze unstructured patient data using natural-language processing. (springeropen.com)

**charts**- The use of superfluous dimensions not used to display the data of interest is discouraged for charts in general, not only for pie charts. (wikipedia.org)

**field**- Because many Likert scales pair each constituent Likert item with its own instance of a visual analogue scale (e.g., a horizontal line, on which a subject indicates his or her response by circling or checking tick-marks), an individual item is itself sometimes erroneously referred to as a scale, with this error creating pervasive confusion in the literature and parlance of the field. (wikipedia.org)
- Receptive fields partially overlap, over-covering the entire visual field. (wikipedia.org)

**common**- Log scales have common usage in some fields, including the VEI (volcanic explosivity index) scale or the richter scale for earthquakes, magnitudes of stars in astronomy and the pH of acidic and alkaline solutions are also based on a form of log scale, but can have the effect of making data less immediately apparent to the eye. (wikipedia.org)