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  • Duck
  • Anas platyrhynchos, Cairina moschata, and the American Pekin Duck are the ducks most affected by the DuCV virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCV2
  • Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the immune response, virus levels, and lesions in pigs vaccinated with one- and two-dose PCV2 subunit vaccines. (aasv.org)
  • The presence of immunomodulatory sequences in the genome of PCV2 may contribute to evasive mechanisms utilized by the virus during persistent infection of immune cells and/or development of clinical disease. (slu.se)
  • immune
  • DNA from virus and bacteria can act modulatory on immune cells through the interaction between unmethylated CpG motifs and toll-like receptor (TLR) 9. (slu.se)
  • viral
  • Novel virus Reoviridae Viral metagenomics Li L, Delwart E. From orphan virus to pathogen: the path to the clinical lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study provides the first dataset on CRESS DNA viruses of European bats, and members of several novel viral species were discovered. (springer.com)
  • An endogenous viral element (EVE) is a DNA sequence derived from a virus, and present within the germline of a non-viral organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication of such 'active' endogenous viruses can lead to the proliferation of viral insertions in the germline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ancient DNA Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous retrovirus ERV3 HERV-FRD Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) Koala retrovirus (KoRV) Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Murine leukemia virus (MLV), and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Paleovirology Polydnavirus Viral eukaryogenesis Taylor, D. J. (wikipedia.org)
  • EVEs has recently opened new avenues to further our understanding of viral evolution and of host-virus interactions. (duhnnae.com)
  • Rybicki, Edward 2015-01-01 00:00:00 Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). (deepdyve.com)
  • Research Focus: Host pathogen interaction, trafficking of AAV and VACV in multiple cell lines with emphasis on cytokines/ chemokines mediated inhibition of viruses, viral morphogenesis, signaling cascade and cell fate. (ufl.edu)
  • To our amazement, we discovered ancient fossils [viral sequences] in 19 vertebrate species that are related to certain currently circulating RNA viruses,' notably the deadly Ebolaviruses, and the Bornaviruses, she says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses must first get into the cell before viral replication can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the perspective of the virus, the purpose of viral replication is to allow production and survival of its kind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following components are manufactured by the virus through the host's existing organelles: Viral protein synthesis: virus mRNA is translated on cell ribosomes into two types of virus protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICTV
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endogenous
  • Endogenous retroviruses and other EVEs that occur as proviruses can potentially remain capable of producing infectious virus in their endogenous state. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • PRV has many nonessential genes which can be replaced with genes encoding heterologous antigens but without deleterious effects on virus propagation. (hindawi.com)
  • however, this subset of genes can be replaced by heterologous genes without affecting infectivity or virus propagation provided the essential genes remain intact. (hindawi.com)
  • Viruses have long been speculated to be a source of novel animal genes, yet little evidence, except from retroviruses, has supported this idea. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The negative-sense RNA viruses and indeed all genes defined as negative-sense cannot be directly accessed by host ribosomes to immediately form proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Li L, Victoria JG, Wang C, Jones M, Fellers GM, Kunz TH, Delwart E (2010) Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses. (springer.com)
  • Alignment of nucleotide sequences from the UTR of TTV and related human viruses (upper box) and homologs in other primates and mammalian species and the avian virus CAV (lower box). (asmscience.org)
  • Birds
  • Clinical disease is rare today because of the widespread practice of vaccinating breeders, but the subclinical form of the disease - which normally affects birds more than two weeks of age following horizontal transmission of the virus via the oro-faecal route - is ubiquitous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult birds coming into contact with the virus usually (but not always) develop resistance to it, but the virus is retained in their body and, in most cases, is excreted in feces and feather debris for the rest of their lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chicken
  • Chicken anaemia virus, or CAV, is a member of the circoviridae family which is found worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease/virus has many names including chicken anaemia, blue wing disease, anaemia dermatitis syndrome, chicken/avian infectious anaemia, haemorrhagic aplastic anaemia syndrome, infectious chicken anaemia, chicken infectious anaemia virus and chicken anaemia agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chicken anaemia virus infects preursor T cells in the thymus and hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, causing destruction of these cells via apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until 2011, chicken anemia virus was the only Gyrovirus identified, but since then gyroviruses have also been identified in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Browning, Glenn F. "Attenuation of chicken anemia virus by site-directed mutagenesis of VP2. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • In the case of bacterial viruses, the release of progeny virions takes place by lysis of the infected bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Identification of orthologous EVE insertions enables the calibration of long-term evolutionary timelines for viruses, based on the estimated time since divergence of the ortholog-containing host species groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the discovery of recent EVEs offers an interesting opportunity to characterize new exogenous viruses currently circulating in economically or ecologically important copepod species. (duhnnae.com)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a list of individual species, see List of virus species. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • This new virus was initially discovered in 1997 by means of representational difference analysis (RDA) in the plasma of a Japanese patient (initials T.T.) with posttransfusion hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • Later the name torque (necklace) teno (from Latin tenuis - "thin") virus was adopted as it preserved the original abbreviation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The English plural is viruses (sometimes also viri or vira), whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural (Neo-Latin had vīra is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • TTV genogroup 3 also includes the 8 virus strains known as SENV-A to H. These viruses are not currently believed to cause disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains of the virus have predominantly been found in China, though strains have also been isolated from ducks in Germany and the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Recombinant viruses represent a particularly promising avenue of vaccine research both for improving existing vaccines and for developing new ones [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Research Focus: Assist in developing the next generation of polio virus vaccines in the laboratory of Dr. James Flanegan. (ufl.edu)
  • retroviruses
  • Until recently, age estimates for all viruses except retroviruses were in the thousands of years, and nobody expected to be able to trace viruses beyond that time frame due to high mutation rates of the most commonly circulating viruses,' says Anna Marie Skalka of Fox Chase. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Retroviruses) VII: dsDNA-RT viruses DNA with RNA intermediate in life-cycle (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virology
  • The research upends the conventional wisdom that most virus families are of very recent origin, and is published in the December issue of the Journal of Virology. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duck
  • Anas platyrhynchos, Cairina moschata, and the American Pekin Duck are the ducks most affected by the DuCV virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCV2
  • Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the immune response, virus levels, and lesions in pigs vaccinated with one- and two-dose PCV2 subunit vaccines. (aasv.org)
  • The presence of immunomodulatory sequences in the genome of PCV2 may contribute to evasive mechanisms utilized by the virus during persistent infection of immune cells and/or development of clinical disease. (slu.se)
  • immune
  • DNA from virus and bacteria can act modulatory on immune cells through the interaction between unmethylated CpG motifs and toll-like receptor (TLR) 9. (slu.se)
  • genomes
  • While efforts have been made to determine its prevalence in wild and captive psittacines, only limited work has been done to document complete genomes of its causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). (springer.com)
  • Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report the discovery of a group of circovirus-like DNA genomes whose common ancestor appears to have incorporated a capsid protein (CP) gene known previously only in RNA viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replication is monocistronic and includes individual, segmented genomes, meaning that each of the genes codes for only one protein, unlike other viruses that exhibit more complex translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rolling circle replication is a method for replicating genomes that is seen most commonly in circular plasmids and genomes of bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICTV
  • As a starting point for our survey, we used a previously published database (see [ 5 ]) obtained by systematically searching the primary scientific literature up to and including 2005 for reports of human infection with recognized virus species, using species as defined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This is a taxonomic list of viruses according to the most recent (2014) taxonomy release by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), placed into the groups of the Baltimore classification system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developments in plant virus taxonomy since the publication of the 6th ICTV Report. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anellovirus
  • A prevalent but asymptomatic human Anellovirus, called Transfusion Transmitted Virus (TTV), is included within this classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • New species of human virus are still being identified, at a rate of three or four per year (see below), and viruses make up over two-thirds of all new human pathogens [ 2 ], a highly significant over-representation given that most human pathogen species are bacteria, fungi or helminths. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them. (wikipedia.org)
  • David Baltimore, a Nobel Prize-winning biologist, devised a system called the Baltimore Classification System to classify different viruses based on their unique replication strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with most RNA viruses, this class replicates in the "Core" capsid that is in cytoplasm, not having to use the host replication polymerases to as much a degree as DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The replication of viruses happens in the cytoplasm or nucleus (for segmented class V viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication occurs in the nucleus of the cell in which this virus is small enough to enter into. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • The virus may be transferred in crop secretions, in fresh or dried feces, and in feather and skin particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Viruses are a vital purely natural indicates of transferring genes concerning diverse species, which improves genetic diversity and drives evolution. (ampblogs.com)
  • The negative-sense RNA viruses and indeed all genes defined as negative-sense cannot be directly accessed by host ribosomes to immediately form proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • infects
  • When this virus infects cancer cells, it destroys them As well as in doing this the existence the GM-CSF gene appeals to dendritic cells with the bordering tissues of your body. (ampblogs.com)
  • Chicken anaemia virus infects preursor T cells in the thymus and hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, causing destruction of these cells via apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1892
  • Following on from the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus in 1892 and foot-and-mouth disease virus in 1898, the first 'filterable agent' to be discovered in humans was yellow fever virus in 1901 [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • In the case of bacterial viruses, the release of progeny virions takes place by lysis of the infected bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • herpes
  • Herpes viruses are double stranded DNA viruses assigned to Group I . The Herpesviridae Study Group has proposed that herpes viruses be assigned to a newly defined order, Herpesvirales. (wikidoc.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • Later the name torque (necklace) teno (from Latin tenuis - "thin") virus was adopted as it preserved the original abbreviation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The English plural is viruses (sometimes also viri or vira), whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural (Neo-Latin had vīra is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • In some countries, depending on the prevalence of diseases, other pathogens can be involved in swine respiratory diseases, such as classical swine fever virus or pseudorabies virus. (thermofisher.com)
  • The virus causes respiratory and influenza-like symptoms as well as fertility problems, abortion, and the birth of runts. (thermofisher.com)