• Proteins
  • The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), a versatile receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix . (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) inhibit infection of diverse enveloped viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV) which is thought to enter from late endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. (nih.gov)
  • A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. (nih.gov)
  • This inhibition of viral entry was determined to not be due to papuamide A binding to CD4 or HIV gp120, the two proteins involved in the cell-virus recognition and binding. (nih.gov)
  • The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), a versatile receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining eight ORFs create the six main structural proteins for the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 269, 3928-3933 Apical and basolateral coated pits of MDCK cells differ in their rates of maturation into coated vesicles, but not in the ability to distinguish between hemagglutinin proteins with different internalization signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus RdRp would partially uncoat the nucleocapsid and transcribe the genes into positive-stranded mRNAs, which would then be translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP1-proteins are incorporated into the capsid structure in a non-stochiometrical relation (based on antibody-binding analysis and X-ray structural analysis the VP1-unique region is assumed to be exposed at the surface of the virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • integrin
  • Increasing evidence suggests that small GTPases such as Arf6 and members of the Rab family control integrin internalization and recycling back to the plasma membrane along microtubules. (biologists.org)
  • Cumulatively, the present results provide several lines of evidence that HSV gH/gL interacts with a cell surface cognate protein(s), that this protein is not necessarily an αVβ3 integrin, and that this interaction is required for the process of virus entry/fusion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • endocytic vesicles
  • In this paper, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus entry, formation of endocytic vesicles, and the traffic. (hindawi.com)
  • Dynamin has been suggested to act both as a regulatory GTPase by controlling the early stages of CME, which is an important endocytic pathway used by many viruses, and as a chemical enzyme that induces membrane fission and pinches endocytic vesicles off from the cellular plasma membrane in later stages in several endocytic pathways, including CME. (hindawi.com)
  • There are two types of MHC molecules which differ in the source of the antigens: MHC class I molecules (MHC-I) bind peptides from the cell cytosol, while peptides generated in the endocytic vesicles after internalisation are bound to MHC class II (MHC-II). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • 16-21 hours post-seeding/induction, cells were infected with wt JR-CSF virus at varying multiplicities of infection (MOI). (nih.gov)
  • Chezzi, C. 2008-07-01 00:00:00 This study was aimed at investigating the possible involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the modulation of host permissiveness to A/NWS/33 human influenza virus infection in two mammalian (MDCK and LLC-MK2) cell lines in vitro. (deepdyve.com)
  • We show here that papuamide A acts as an entry inhibitor, preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection of host cells and that this inhibition is not specific to R5 or X4 tropic virus. (nih.gov)
  • Time delayed addition studies with the pseudotyped viruses show that papuamide A inhibits viral infection only at the initial stage of the viral life cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Using multiple models of CMV infection in the developing mouse brain, we show that subcutaneous low-dose VCD suppresses CMV by reducing the level of virus available for entry into the brain and by acting directly within the brain to block virus replication and dispersal. (jneurosci.org)
  • The hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1/TIM-1), is a member of the TIM (T cell transmembrane, immunoglobulin, and mucin) gene family, which plays critical roles in regulating immune cell activity especially regarding the host response to viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIM-1 has been identified as a cellular factor for Dengue virus entry by overexpression of TIM-1 on poorly susceptible cell lines for Dengue virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the cytoplasm, the virus can use the host's ribosomal machinery to proliferate and replicate progenies for further infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive cardiac necrosis can occur by day three after infection as incubated viruses lyse myocytes, resulting in severe and rapid cardiac decompensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral shedding refers to the expulsion and release of virus progeny following successful reproduction during a host-cell infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is an example of an enveloped virus that exploits this process for the infection of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule is involved in the initial stages of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, as the HIV gp120 molecule causes co-internalization of the DC-SIGN molecule and HIV virus particle (virion). (wikipedia.org)
  • If there has been an infection with viruses or bacteria, the cell will present an endogenous or exogenous peptide fragment derived from the antigen bound to MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • One may speculate that these subtypes infect patients where a certain allele of CCR5 is more common, and the virus has adapted the gp120 protein to obtain enhanced binding. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we examined IAV restriction by IFITM3 protein using direct virus-cell fusion assay and single virus imaging in live cells. (nih.gov)
  • C) IFITM3 restricts fusion of influenza virus-like particles containing β-lactamase reporter protein fused to the influenza matrix protein-1 (BlaM1). (nih.gov)
  • Conformational changes in a viral particle (A-particle) with sCAR-Fc-virus binding causing the loss of the virus' internal capsid protein, VP4. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is based on the fact that viruses within this subfamily, such as the Mammalian orthoreovirus, Aquareovirus, Coltivirus, Cypovirus, etc., have the presence of a turreted protein on the inner capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research was instrumental towards understanding the intracellular mechanisms of viral and membrane protein sorting in epithelial cells and the cell-surface assembly of several RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 67, 4831-4841 Measles Viruses with Altered Envelope Protein Cytoplasmic Tails Gain Cell Fusion Competence.J. Virol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its short genome and its simple composition-only RNA and a nonenveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates it, poliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • On entry, the virus hijacks the cell's translation machinery, causing inhibition of cellular protein synthesis in favor of virus-specific protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primer for both (+) and (−) strand synthesis is the small protein VPg, which is uridylylated at the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine residue by the poliovirus RNA polymerase at a cis-acting replication element located in a stem-loop in the virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each capsid consists of a total of 60 capsomers: VP2 is the major capsid protein, and comprises approximately 95% of the total virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the sequence of SVV's protein-coding genome is most similar to members in the Cardiovirus genus, the non-coding RNA internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is most similar to those of the Pestivirus genus, including classical swine fever virus, and Hepacivirus genus, including Hepatitis C virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • There are several viral entry ways that have been identified, like genetic injection including phages and membrane fusion such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that IFITMs block virus hemifusion (lipid mixing in the absence of viral content release) by altering the properties of cell membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Any mutation in this region would effect virus interaction with target cell and viral persistence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, once sCAR-Fc binds the virus, macrophages and other phagocytic immune cells with Fc receptor recognition bind to the sCAR-Fc-viral complex to eliminate the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once replication has been completed and the host cell is exhausted of all resources in making viral progeny, the viruses may begin to leave the cell by several methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Budding" through the cell envelope-in effect, borrowing from the cell membrane to create the virus's own viral envelope-is most effective for viruses that need an envelope in the first place. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Pohl, M. O., Stertz, S. Measuring Attachment and Internalization of Influenza A Virus in A549 Cells by Flow Cytometry. (jove.com)
  • The cell signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes and is often manipulated by viruses as they rely on the functions offered by cells for their propagation. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to deliver their genomes into the host cells for their own purposes, viruses have to overcome the barrier of the cell, the plasma membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • The titer of the virus was previously determined on stable CD4/CCR5-expressing GHOST cells where CD4/CCR5 levels are non-limiting. (nih.gov)
  • Although late endosomes of IFITM3-expressing cells accumulated cholesterol, other interventions leading to aberrantly high levels of this lipid did not inhibit virus fusion. (nih.gov)
  • African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. (nih.gov)
  • It also indicated that average composition of hydrophilic and basic amino acids were comparatively lower in rapid responders than other samples affecting probable interaction of virus with target cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is also how antiviral responses are able to detect virus-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses also leave cells through exocytosis, in which the host cell is not destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the Middle of the Transmembrane Domain Reverse the Polarity of Transport of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin in MDCK Epithelial Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mount anti-tumor immune responses in vivo and target interferon resistant tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It binds various microorganisms by recognizing high-mannose-containing glycoproteins on their envelopes and especially functions as receptor for several viruses such as HIV and Hepatitis C. Binding to DC-SIGN can promote HIV and Hepatitis C virus to infect T-cell from dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, antigen can be presented directly (as described above) or indirectly (cross-presentation) from virus-infected and non-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • In the assembly of new virus particles (i.e. the packaging of progeny genome into a procapsid which can survive outside the host cell), including, respectively: Five copies each of VP0, VP3, and VP1 which its N termini and VP4 form interior surface of capsid, assemble into a 'pentamer' and 12 pentamers form a procapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each procapsid acquires a copy of the virus genome, with VPg still attached at the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus that fulfills the criteria for being a member of the species Lloviu cuevavirus is a Lloviu virus if it has the properties of Lloviu cuevaviruses and if its genome diverges from that of the prototype Lloviu cuevavirus, Lloviu virus variant Bat86 (LLOV/Bat86), by ≤10% at the nucleotide level. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a non-enveloped, icosahedral virus that contains a single-stranded linear DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • endosomes
  • Once within the cell the viruses are rapidly delivered to endosomes via vesicular trafficking albeit one that is largely independent of the small GTPases Rab5 and Rab7. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • DC-SIGN on macrophages recognises and binds to mannose type carbohydrates, a class of pathogen associated molecular patterns PAMPs commonly found on viruses, bacteria and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • classification
  • These can then be identified by the expression of sialoadhesin Since the 1987 classification of type 2 (North American-like) PRRSV, the virus has greatly diversified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based upon the Baltimore classification scheme, the Mammalian orthoreovirus is a Group III virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • A Dual-reporter system for real-time monitoring and high-throughput CRISPR/Cas9 library screening of the hepatitis C virus. (nih.gov)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas and infects approximately 170 million people worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of hepatitis C Virus genotype 3a hypervariable region 1 in patients achieved rapid virological response to alpha interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus roots a chronic liver disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • TIM-1 has been identified as the cellular receptor of hepatitis A virus (HAV). (wikipedia.org)
  • The SVV IRES RNA shares similarities in sequence, structure, and function with the hepatitis C virus IRES. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • the vesicles of virus progeny are carried to the cell membrane and then released into the extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. (nih.gov)
  • inhibit
  • According to the preliminary report, the compound has a toxicity concentration detectable by optical microscope of about 50 mcg/ml while the dosage still able to inhibit the cytophatic effect of the virus (ID50) was shown to be 0.006 mcg/ml [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Genus
  • Mastadenovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Adenoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lloviu virus (abbreviated LLOV) is the sole member of the species Lloviu cuevavirus, which is included genus Cuevavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senecavirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan
  • The etymology of the Mammalian orthoreovirus is based upon "ortho-" translated from Greek as "straight" and "reovirus" from respiratory enteric orphan virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mammalian orthoreovirus was labeled an orphan virus in the 1950s when it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • Unlike the other organisms, in order to create its progeny, viruses need the hosts to provide the replicate resources. (hindawi.com)
  • ICTV
  • According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Lloviu virus is always to be capitalized (because "Lloviu" is a proper noun), but is never italicized, and may be abbreviated (with LLOV being the official abbreviation). (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • This is a good way for a virus to get into macrophages either to infect them or simply travel to other tissues in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Machupo
  • In contrast, the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo , Guanarito , Junin , and Sabia in addition to the non pathogenic Amapari virus, use the transferrin receptor 1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • replication competent
  • To facilitate more rapid, convenient, and robust analysis of HIV-1 entry phenotypes, we engineered a reporter Affinofile system containing a Tat- and Rev-dependent Gaussia luciferase-eGFP-Reporter (GGR) that is compatible with the use of pseudotyped or replication competent viruses with or without a virally encoded reporter gene. (nih.gov)
  • Mutation
  • For instance, the CCR5 Δ32 mutation is known to confer reduced susceptibility to the virus in Europe and western Asia , and this might affect the pattern of selection pressure acting on these sites. (nih.gov)
  • pathogenic
  • African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. (nih.gov)
  • It has not yet been proven that the virus is the etiological agent of a novel bat disease, but healthy Schreibers' long-fingered bats were not found to contain traces of the viruses, thereby at least suggesting that the virus may be pathogenic for certain bats. (wikipedia.org)
  • entry
  • In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, TIM-1 has been shown to be a receptor or cofactor for Ebola virus entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the Dengue virus susceptibility of different cell lines was consistent with endogenous expression level of TIM-1 gene in such cell lines, suggesting that TIM-1 is crucial for Dengue virus entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • TIM genes are also involved in host-virus interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and viroporins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase II Senecavirus after chemotherapy in treating patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer Senecavirus and cyclophosphamide in young patients with neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, or rare tumors with neuroendocrine features It is believed that senecavirus internalizes by receptor-mediated internalization, but as yet no host receptor has been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • IFITM-mediated restriction of virus-endosome fusion in different cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, pretreatment studies revealed that the virus, and not the cell, is the target of papuamide A's action. (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown that compounds of diphenyl-, naftil- and cumaroil-glyoxal are able to stop the infetious process, probably by preventing the penetration of the virus into the cell. (omicsonline.org)
  • The term is used to refer to shedding from a single cell, shedding from one part of the body into another part of the body, and shedding from bodies into the environment where the viruses may infect other bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 17, 855-871 Measles virus spreads in rat hippocampal neurons by cell-to-cell contact and in a polarized fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data warranted further investigation of the virus in a phase II trial in small cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family
  • This is because the Mammalian orthoreovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, and as stated previously, apart of the Reovirus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythroviruses belong to the Parvoviridae family of small DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) is a double stranded RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meaning, that a human infected with Mammalian orthoreovirus, regardless of the serotype, is nearly or completely asymptomatic, and therefore, don't exhibit signs or symptoms of the virus. (wikipedia.org)