• Proteins
  • The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), a versatile receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) inhibit infection of diverse enveloped viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV) which is thought to enter from late endosomes. (nih.gov)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. (nih.gov)
  • A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. (nih.gov)
  • This inhibition of viral entry was determined to not be due to papuamide A binding to CD4 or HIV gp120, the two proteins involved in the cell-virus recognition and binding. (nih.gov)
  • As receptors for phosphatidylserine, TIM proteins bind many families of viruses [filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus] that include viruses such as dengue and ebola. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble THY-1 proteins clogged HCMV contamination during, but not really after, computer virus internalization. (world-of-links.com)
  • We recognized THY-1, a proteins on the surface area of many different cell types vulnerable to CMV contamination, as having an essential part for assisting computer virus contamination. (world-of-links.com)
  • The remaining eight ORFs create the six main structural proteins for the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 269, 3928-3933 Apical and basolateral coated pits of MDCK cells differ in their rates of maturation into coated vesicles, but not in the ability to distinguish between hemagglutinin proteins with different internalization signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus RdRp would partially uncoat the nucleocapsid and transcribe the genes into positive-stranded mRNAs, which would then be translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP1-proteins are incorporated into the capsid structure in a non-stochiometrical relation (based on antibody-binding analysis and X-ray structural analysis the VP1-unique region is assumed to be exposed at the surface of the virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocytic
  • There are two types of MHC molecules which differ in the source of the antigens: MHC class I molecules (MHC-I) bind peptides from the cell cytosol, while peptides generated in the endocytic vesicles after internalisation are bound to MHC class II (MHC-II). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • We show here that papuamide A acts as an entry inhibitor, preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection of host cells and that this inhibition is not specific to R5 or X4 tropic virus. (nih.gov)
  • Time delayed addition studies with the pseudotyped viruses show that papuamide A inhibits viral infection only at the initial stage of the viral life cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Using multiple models of CMV infection in the developing mouse brain, we show that subcutaneous low-dose VCD suppresses CMV by reducing the level of virus available for entry into the brain and by acting directly within the brain to block virus replication and dispersal. (jneurosci.org)
  • The hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1/TIM-1), is a member of the TIM (T cell transmembrane, immunoglobulin, and mucin) gene family, which plays critical roles in regulating immune cell activity especially regarding the host response to viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIM-1 has been identified as a cellular factor for Dengue virus entry by overexpression of TIM-1 on poorly susceptible cell lines for Dengue virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This replication-competent virus, the glioma-adapted vesicular stomatis virus strain VSVrp30a, was used for in vivo tests with the underlying view that infection of tumor cells will lead to an increase in the number of viruses subsequently released to kill additional tumor cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Extensive cardiac necrosis can occur by day three after infection as incubated viruses lyse myocytes, resulting in severe and rapid cardiac decompensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral shedding refers to the expulsion and release of virus progeny following successful reproduction during a host-cell infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is an example of an enveloped virus that exploits this process for the infection of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule is involved in the initial stages of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, as the HIV gp120 molecule causes co-internalization of the DC-SIGN molecule and HIV virus particle (virion). (wikipedia.org)
  • If there has been an infection with viruses or bacteria, the cell will present an endogenous or exogenous peptide fragment derived from the antigen bound to MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • virions
  • Members of the family Filoviridae (filoviruses) are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses that produce filamentous enveloped virions. (mdpi.com)
  • protein
  • One may speculate that these subtypes infect patients where a certain allele of CCR5 is more common, and the virus has adapted the gp120 protein to obtain enhanced binding. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we examined IAV restriction by IFITM3 protein using direct virus-cell fusion assay and single virus imaging in live cells. (nih.gov)
  • C) IFITM3 restricts fusion of influenza virus-like particles containing β-lactamase reporter protein fused to the influenza matrix protein-1 (BlaM1). (nih.gov)
  • The GP precursor is post-translationally cleaved by the pro-protein convertase furin within the Golgi compartment of virus-producer cells, yielding two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and GP2 [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1) also known as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAVCR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conformational changes in a viral particle (A-particle) with sCAR-Fc-virus binding causing the loss of the virus' internal capsid protein, VP4. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is based on the fact that viruses within this subfamily, such as the Mammalian orthoreovirus, Aquareovirus, Coltivirus, Cypovirus, etc., have the presence of a turreted protein on the inner capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research was instrumental towards understanding the intracellular mechanisms of viral and membrane protein sorting in epithelial cells and the cell-surface assembly of several RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 67, 4831-4841 Measles Viruses with Altered Envelope Protein Cytoplasmic Tails Gain Cell Fusion Competence.J. Virol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its short genome and its simple composition-only RNA and a nonenveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates it, poliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • On entry, the virus hijacks the cell's translation machinery, causing inhibition of cellular protein synthesis in favor of virus-specific protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primer for both (+) and (−) strand synthesis is the small protein VPg, which is uridylylated at the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine residue by the poliovirus RNA polymerase at a cis-acting replication element located in a stem-loop in the virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each capsid consists of a total of 60 capsomers: VP2 is the major capsid protein, and comprises approximately 95% of the total virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the sequence of SVV's protein-coding genome is most similar to members in the Cardiovirus genus, the non-coding RNA internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is most similar to those of the Pestivirus genus, including classical swine fever virus, and Hepacivirus genus, including Hepatitis C virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • CD81 also plays a crucial role in pathogen entry into host cells, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • Although late endosomes of IFITM3-expressing cells accumulated cholesterol, other interventions leading to aberrantly high levels of this lipid did not inhibit virus fusion. (nih.gov)
  • African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. (nih.gov)
  • Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • It also indicated that average composition of hydrophilic and basic amino acids were comparatively lower in rapid responders than other samples affecting probable interaction of virus with target cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These last statements must be confirmed with assays on the mechanism of action of the compound, by analysing its adhesion to the cell virus internalization into the cells, the viral uncoating, transcription and translation, and finally on viral morphogenesis. (omicsonline.org)
  • From in vitro comparisons of a number of viruses, we selected one that appeared the best in selectively killing glioblastoma cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Quantitative PCR analysis of how VSVrp30a selectively infected tumor cells suggested multiple mechanisms, including cell surface binding and internalization. (jneurosci.org)
  • An alternate strategy is the use of replicating viruses that target, infect, produce progeny virus to infect more tumor cells, and kill infected cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • THY-1 may function through a complicated Compound W IC50 establishing, that would consist of virus-like gigabyte and gH, and additional mobile elements, therefore links computer virus access with signaling in sponsor cells that eventually prospects to computer virus contamination. (world-of-links.com)
  • Despite considerable study, very much is usually still unfamiliar concerning how the computer virus enters cells. (world-of-links.com)
  • Furthermore, once sCAR-Fc binds the virus, macrophages and other phagocytic immune cells with Fc receptor recognition bind to the sCAR-Fc-viral complex to eliminate the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is also how antiviral responses are able to detect virus-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses also leave cells through exocytosis, in which the host cell is not destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the Middle of the Transmembrane Domain Reverse the Polarity of Transport of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin in MDCK Epithelial Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mount anti-tumor immune responses in vivo and target interferon resistant tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It binds various microorganisms by recognizing high-mannose-containing glycoproteins on their envelopes and especially functions as receptor for several viruses such as HIV and Hepatitis C. Binding to DC-SIGN can promote HIV and Hepatitis C virus to infect T-cell from dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, antigen can be presented directly (as described above) or indirectly (cross-presentation) from virus-infected and non-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • In the assembly of new virus particles (i.e. the packaging of progeny genome into a procapsid which can survive outside the host cell), including, respectively: Five copies each of VP0, VP3, and VP1 which its N termini and VP4 form interior surface of capsid, assemble into a 'pentamer' and 12 pentamers form a procapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each procapsid acquires a copy of the virus genome, with VPg still attached at the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus that fulfills the criteria for being a member of the species Lloviu cuevavirus is a Lloviu virus if it has the properties of Lloviu cuevaviruses and if its genome diverges from that of the prototype Lloviu cuevavirus, Lloviu virus variant Bat86 (LLOV/Bat86), by ≤10% at the nucleotide level. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a non-enveloped, icosahedral virus that contains a single-stranded linear DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. (nih.gov)
  • However, it has been demonstrated that viruses infecting prokaryotes of the domain Archaea also employ this mechanism of virion release. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • According to the preliminary report, the compound has a toxicity concentration detectable by optical microscope of about 50 mcg/ml while the dosage still able to inhibit the cytophatic effect of the virus (ID50) was shown to be 0.006 mcg/ml [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Ebola
  • Recently, TIM-1 has been shown to be a receptor or cofactor for Ebola virus entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, reducing expression of endogenous TIM-1 in highly permissive cell lines decreased Ebola virus infectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, TIM-1 IgV domain specific antibody ARD5 inhibited Ebola virus infectivity, indicating that TIM-1 was critical for Ebola virus entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lloviu virus (LLOV) is an uncultured virus distantly related to the well-known pathogens Ebola virus and Marburg virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • DC-SIGN on macrophages recognises and binds to mannose type carbohydrates, a class of pathogen associated molecular patterns PAMPs commonly found on viruses, bacteria and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • Once replication has been completed and the host cell is exhausted of all resources in making viral progeny, the viruses may begin to leave the cell by several methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • the vesicles of virus progeny are carried to the cell membrane and then released into the extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICTV
  • According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Lloviu virus is always to be capitalized (because "Lloviu" is a proper noun), but is never italicized, and may be abbreviated (with LLOV being the official abbreviation). (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • This is a good way for a virus to get into macrophages either to infect them or simply travel to other tissues in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa
  • Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Samples from Pinneo were sent to Yale University in New Haven where a new virus, that would later be known as Lassa virus, was isolated for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication for Lassa virus is very rapid, while also demonstrating temporal control in replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three arenaviruses studied in this thesis, Machupo virus (MACV), Junín virus (JUNV), and Lassa virus (LASV), are causative agents of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa fever, respectively. (uiowa.edu)
  • Machupo
  • In contrast, the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in addition to the non pathogenic Amapari virus, use the transferrin receptor 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Mastadenovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Adenoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lloviu virus (abbreviated LLOV) is the sole member of the species Lloviu cuevavirus, which is included genus Cuevavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senecavirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. (nih.gov)
  • It has not yet been proven that the virus is the etiological agent of a novel bat disease, but healthy Schreibers' long-fingered bats were not found to contain traces of the viruses, thereby at least suggesting that the virus may be pathogenic for certain bats. (wikipedia.org)
  • measles
  • 17, 855-871 Measles virus spreads in rat hippocampal neurons by cell-to-cell contact and in a polarized fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • entry
  • In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the Dengue virus susceptibility of different cell lines was consistent with endogenous expression level of TIM-1 gene in such cell lines, suggesting that TIM-1 is crucial for Dengue virus entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • Once the virus penetrates the host's systemic circulation via contaminated water or food, it can travel and infect the heart and cause myocarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is used to refer to shedding from a single cell, shedding from one part of the body into another part of the body, and shedding from bodies into the environment where the viruses may infect other bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • infects
  • Writer Overview Human being cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is usually an essential human being virus that infects about half the US populace and is usually a main trigger of delivery problems and morbidity in transplant recipients. (world-of-links.com)
  • Orphan
  • The etymology of the Mammalian orthoreovirus is based upon "ortho-" translated from Greek as "straight" and "reovirus" from respiratory enteric orphan virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mammalian orthoreovirus was labeled an orphan virus in the 1950s when it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • reovirus
  • This is because the Mammalian orthoreovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, and as stated previously, apart of the Reovirus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • For instance, the CCR5 Δ32 mutation is known to confer reduced susceptibility to the virus in Europe and western Asia , and this might affect the pattern of selection pressure acting on these sites. (nih.gov)
  • inhibition
  • Serotypes 1 (Lang), 2 (Jones), and 3 (Dearing) were originally recognized based upon virus neurtaliation and hemaglutination-inhibition profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Epidemics of these diseases can carry high rates of morbidity and mortality, and due to a lack of available countermeasures, all three viruses are considered category A priority pathogens by the CDC. (uiowa.edu)
  • symptoms
  • By 1972, the multimammate rat was found to be the main reservoir of the virus in West Africa, able to shed virus in its urine and feces without exhibiting visible symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meaning, that a human infected with Mammalian orthoreovirus, regardless of the serotype, is nearly or completely asymptomatic, and therefore, don't exhibit signs or symptoms of the virus. (wikipedia.org)