• particles
  • Thus, viral gene expression can occur and new virus particles can be generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory later discredited by the American biochemist and virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904-1971), who proved that they were in fact, particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion that viruses were particles was not considered unnatural and fitted in nicely with the germ theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed that Dr. J. Buist of Edinburgh was the first person to see virus particles in 1886, when he reported seeing "micrococci" in vaccine lymph, though he had probably observed clumps of vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years that followed, as optical microscopes were improved "inclusion bodies" were seen in many virus-infected cells, but these aggregates of virus particles were still too small to reveal any detailed structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not until the invention of the electron microscope in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska (1906-1988) and Max Knoll (1887-1969), that virus particles, especially bacteriophages, were shown to have complex structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • RNA which can be directly translated into viral proteins) which is around 12.5 kilobases (kb) long (equal to the length of 12,500 nucleotides). (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of Batai virus (BATV) consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that is composed of three RNA segments: small (S), medium (M), and large (L). The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) and the non-structural (NSs) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle
  • Binding to αv integrin results in endocytosis of the virus particle via clathrin-coated pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the help of cellular microtubules, the virus is transported to the nuclear pore complex, whereby the adenovirus particle disassembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959, is also used to refer to a single, stable infective viral particle that is released from the cell and is fully capable of infecting other cells of the same type. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICTV
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • For BVDV frequently nonhomologous RNA recombination events lead to the appearance of genetically distinct viruses that are lethal to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive research has yet to be performed on the detailed crystalline structure of Batai virus, but research on the closely related Bunyamwera virus has shown a distinct functionality of each of the two nucleocapsid side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus
  • Pestivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Flaviviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family and is the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Batai virus (BATV) is a RNA virus belonging to order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Batai virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus and a member of the family Bunyaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco mosai
  • Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • affects
  • He also applied such tools to the study of rotaviruses, a leading worldwide cause of infantile diarrhea which severely affects and causes many deaths in toddlers living in developing countries like Venezuela. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • It has been observed that reassortment between the M segment and the S and L segments with another strain of Batai virus (BUNV) can cause an increase in the virulence of Batai virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year Friedrich Loeffler (1852-1915) and Paul Frosch (1860-1928) passed the first animal virus through a similar filter and discovered the cause of foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728, before the discovery of viruses by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • By this stage Esparza had attained hands-on command of many aspects of viral research techniques (i.e., virus-isolation, culture, serotyping, structure, genetic engineering and vaccine development) as well as project-management expertise while heading studies of a variety of human viral pathologies including enchephalitis, herpes, and rotaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • Evidence from serological surveillance and virus isolation shows that this virus is widely distributed around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, on initial isolation several serial passages of the virus or, better, the infected culture may be necessary before the effects are recognized. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many highly pathogenic viruses affecting humans, animals, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Around the end of 1970s Esparza became involved in studies of various aspects of this zoonotic disease using both mosquito-cell cultures of the virus as well as an in-vivo experimental rat-model of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • and circovirus, which includes porcine circovirus types 1 and 2, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, pigeon circovirus, canary circovirus goose circovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include canine distemper virus (dogs), phocine distemper virus (seals), cetacean morbillivirus (dolphins and porpoises) Newcastle disease virus (birds) and rinderpest virus (cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease develops mainly when seronegative dams are exposed oronasally to the virus anytime during about the first half of gestation, and conceptuses are subsequently infected transplacentally before they become immunocompetent. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Viral antigen is especially concentrated in lymphoid tissues (Fig. 3A, B). Many pigs, irrespective of age or sex, have a transient, usually mild, leukopenia sometime within 10 days after initial exposure to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • The virus exits the host cell by budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral enveloped nucleocapsids utilize membrane glycoproteins on their surface to mediate entry into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry of adenoviruses into the host cell involves two sets of interactions between the virus and the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • yellow
  • The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • A software named Jsubtomo enables visualization of the structure of viral glycoprotein spikes to a resolution in the range of 20-40 Å and allows for study of the study of higher order spike-to-spike interactions on the virion membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • The first evidence of the existence of viruses came from experiments with filters that had pores small enough to retain bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Averaging of glycoprotein spikes of membrane viruses, such as HIV-1, has been a particularly successful approach for studying their structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • public health
  • From 1986 to 2014 he worked continuously as a viral vaccine expert and senior public health adviser for international health policy agencies such as the World Health Organization, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Such work served as a basis for several publications focusing on mutations affecting the temperature sensitivity of the virus. (wikipedia.org)