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  • genome
  • Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. (mdpi.com)
  • Host information on the Circovirus-like genome RW_B virus encoding the "Satellite viruses" FSF (b.121.7) was not available. (sciencemag.org)
  • Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected cell throughout the life of the host, yet at the same time must also be capable of avoiding elimination by the immune surveillance system especially must avoid being detected by host CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cache Valley Virus genome is split into three parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the cell, the viral membrane fuses with the endosomal membrane, and the virus genome is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its short genome and its simple composition-only RNA and a nonenveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates it, poliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the assembly of new virus particles (i.e. the packaging of progeny genome into a procapsid which can survive outside the host cell), including, respectively: Five copies each of VP0, VP3, and VP1 which its N termini and VP4 form interior surface of capsid, assemble into a 'pentamer' and 12 pentamers form a procapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each procapsid acquires a copy of the virus genome, with VPg still attached at the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of these viruses are positive-sense RNAs, in which the RNA is directly translated into a viral protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of these viruses are gapped, double-stranded, and subsequently become filled to form CccDNAcovalently closed circular DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • Enterically infecting viruses: pathogenicity, transmission and significance for food and waterborne infection. (springer.com)
  • Dimmock NJ (1982) Initial stages in infection with animal viruses. (springer.com)
  • Attenuated virus mutants represent a promising approach towards gamma-herpesvirus infection control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human metapnuemovirus (HMPV) is a negative single-stranded RNA virus that is the second most common cause of lower respiratory infection in young children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are no cures or vaccine for the disease, a vaccine developed for the genetically related Junín virus which causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever has shown evidence of cross-reactivity to Machupo virus, and may therefore be an effective prophylactic measure for people at high risk of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of specific instances where known viruses need to be quantified include clone screening, multiplicity of infection (MOI) optimization and adaptation of methods to cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, a confluent monolayer of host cells is infected with the virus at varying dilutions and covered with a semi-solid medium, such as agar or carboxymethyl cellulose, to prevent the virus infection from spreading indiscriminately. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus infected cell will lyse and spread the infection to adjacent cells where the infection-to-lysis cycle is repeated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the simian foamy virus is endemic in African apes and monkeys, there are extremely high infection rates in captivity, ranging from 70% to 100% in adult animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entry receptor that triggers viral entry has not been identified, but the absence of heparan sulfate in one study resulted in a decrease of infection, acknowledging it as an attachment factor that assists in mediating the entry of the viral particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • The hemagglutinin is a sialic acid receptor-binding molecule and mediates entry of the virus into the host cell, while neuraminidase cleaves cellular-receptor sialic acid to form new particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pfu/mL result represents the number of infective particles within the sample and is based on the assumption that each plaque formed is representative of one infective virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus forming assay (FFA) is a variation of the plaque assay, but instead of relying on cell lysis in order to detect plaque formation, the FFA employs immunostaining techniques using fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for a viral antigen to detect infected host cells and infectious virus particles before an actual plaque is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus particles are approximately 80-100 nm in diameter and contain single-strand, positive-sense RNA: ss(+)RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The family Herpesviridae, which contains eight viruses that infect humans, is the most extensively studied group within this order and comprises three subfamilies, namely Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected animals are asymptomatic and shed the virus in excreta, thereby infecting humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As humans are in close proximity to infected individuals, people who have had contact with primates can become infected with SFV, making SFV a zoophytic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Attached to the host cell membrane, entry of the viral nucleic acid was thought to occur one of two ways: via the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane through which the RNA is then "injected" into the host cell cytoplasm, or that the virus is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once internalized, the virus particle must fuse with the internal vessical and allow its genetic material to escape into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. (springer.com)
  • Following transfection of viral RNA, infectious virus could be recovered from all non-permissive cells, except from Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (springer.com)
  • Plaque-based assays are the standard method used to determine virus concentration in terms of infectious dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the plaque assay, host cell monolayers are infected with various dilutions of the virus sample and allowed to incubate for a relatively brief incubation period (e.g., 24-72 hours) under a semisolid overlay medium that restricts the spread of infectious virus, creating localized clusters (foci) of infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of the FFA are expressed as focus forming units per milliliter, or FFU/mL. 50% Tissue culture Infective Dose (TCID50) is the measure of infectious virus titer. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrovirus
  • As it is related to the more well-known retrovirus Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), its discovery in primates has led to some speculation that HIV may have been spread to the human species in Africa through contact with blood from apes, monkeys, and other primates, most likely through bushmeat hunting practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Since so many computers were running the same operating system, and would run the same programs (without needing to be compiled), viruses could spread widely. (realink.org)
  • Herpesviruses represent a group of double-stranded DNA viruses distributed widely within the animal kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of environmental factors on the survival and spread of viruses via contaminated surfaces. (springer.com)
  • A ) Violin plots comparing the spread ( f value) of FSFs shared and not shared with viruses in archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryal proteomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In 2001, Outlook PDFWorm (Trend Micro, 2000) was identified and spread through PDF documents as Microsoft Outlook email attachments. (wikipedia.org)
  • hosts
  • Fig. 3 Virus-host preferences and FSF distribution in viruses infecting different hosts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Studying this diversity is the key to a better understanding of how viruses interact with their hosts, replicate inside them, and cause diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This endpoint dilution assay quantifies the amount of virus required to kill 50% of infected hosts or to produce a cytopathic effect in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • entry
  • The envelope protects the interior of the virus from the environment, and enables entry by fusing to the membrane of the permissive cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Cells in suspension at 4°C bound virus more efficiently than cells in monolayers at 4°C or 37°C. High initial binding rate was observed in monolayers or cells in suspension and proceeded to a maximum at 90 min, although half maximal binding was observed as early as 15 min. (springer.com)
  • Binding was specific and competitively blocked by serotypically homologous or heterologous FCV as well as by San Miguel sea lion virus. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of cells with proteases increased FCV binding, whereas phospholipase had no effect on virus attachment. (springer.com)
  • PNGSs allow for the binding of long-chain carbohydrates to the high variability regions of gp120, so the authors hypothesize that the number of PNGSs in env might affect the fitness of the virus by providing more or less sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • gp120 can also easily be shed from the surface of the virus and captured by T cells due to its loose binding with gp41. (wikipedia.org)
  • The host range of a virus is determined by the specificity of the binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • Then it was found that the synthetic compound 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en or DANA) which is an analogue of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), inhibits the release of virus progeny in tissue culture but no antiviral activity in animals was detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Shaded regions highlight the overlap between parasitic cells and giant viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • The kinetics and biochemical properties of feline calicivirus (FCV) attachment to Crandell-Reese feline kidney cells were determined. (springer.com)
  • Baxt B, Bachrach HL (1980) Early interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with cultured cells. (springer.com)
  • These type of inhibitors have been introduced as anti-influenza drugs as they prevent the virus from exiting infected cells and thus stop further spreading of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus will then be released from the host cells and will subsequently infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are submicroscopic parasites that replicate inside host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in the context of tissue culture, host cells are plated and serial dilutions of the virus are added. (wikipedia.org)
  • After incubation, the percentage of cell death (i.e. infected cells) is manually observed and recorded for each virus dilution, and results are used to mathematically calculate a TCID50 result. (wikipedia.org)
  • lacks
  • While the transmitting host has developed a neutralizing antibody response to gp120, the newly infected host lacks immune recognition of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • The genomic data available nowadays has enabled the study of repetitive sequences and their relationship to viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • b) viruses with more complex transcription than the first group where either subgenomic RNAs or two rounds of translation are necessary to produce the genomic RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • In considering how much PNGS density could theoretically change, there may be an upper bound to PNGS number due to its inhibition of gp120 folding, but if the PNGS number decreases substantially, then the virus is too easily detected by neutralizing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • They are able to successfully infect and parasitize all kinds of life forms- from microorganisms to plants and animals- and as a result viruses have more biological diversity than the rest of the bacterial, plant, and animal kingdoms combined. (wikipedia.org)