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  • vesicular
  • The cytopathogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been attributed mainly to the host shut-off activity of the viral matrix (M) protein, which inhibits both nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport, thereby effectively suppressing the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lassa virus (Arenaviridae) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenaviridae) Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) Marburg Virus (Filoviridae) Ebola virus (Filoviridae) Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus (Paramyxoviridae) Human respiratory syncytial virus (Paramyxoviridae) Parainfluenza (Paramyxoviridae) Rabies (Rhabdoviridae) Vesicular stomatitis virus (Rhabdoviridae) The genome for negative-stranded RNA virus (NSV) consists of one to several single-stranded RNAs, which are assembled into complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Here we used recent advances in microscopy to explore vRNA assembly and transport during a productive infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To extend the observations made in fixed cells, we used a virus that encodes GFP fused to the viral polymerase acidic (PA) protein (WSN PA-GFP) to explore the dynamics of vRNA assembly in live cells during a productive infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HEp2 cells were only minimally infected by the ΔF virus, while A549 cells and Vbac cells, allowed for a robust infection with the ΔF virus. (hindawi.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Infection with these viruses produces a characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, it was found that this mechanism interferes with the cells response to viral infection, which suppressed the innate immune response, allowing the virus to proliferate in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with this virus was first documented in 1955 during an outbreak in New Delhi, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although hepatitis E often causes an acute and self-limiting infection (the virus usually resolves itself and the individual recovers) with low mortality rates in the western world, it bears a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients with substantial mortality rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with hepatitis E virus can also lead to problems in other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virology
  • It is of fundamental importance in virology, with a broad spectrum of applications ranging from the image analysis and classification of experimental data to the construction of assembly models. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • genomes
  • Currently, virologists are working on using high-throughput sequencing to identify novel virus genomes from a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a member of the Bunyavirales order, Orthobunyavirus genus, and Bunyamwera serogroup, which was first isolated in 1956 from Culiseta inornata mosquitos collected in Utah's Cache Valley. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nodamura virus is the only member of the alphanodavirus genus that can infect insects, fish, and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other viruses in this genus are flock house virus and black beetle virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species in this genus is called Influenza C virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Nodaviridae Genus: Alphanodavirus Black beetle virus Boolarra virus Flock House virus Nodamura virus Pariacoto virus Genus: Betanodavirus Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus Striped jack nervous necrosis virus Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus While NoV remains the type species for this group, Flock house virus (FHV) is the best studied of the Nodaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Although many cytoplasmic foci contain multiple vRNA segments, not all vRNA species are present in every focus, indicating that assembly of all eight vRNA segments does not occur prior to export from the nucleus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • During virus cell exit, the assembly of different viral components seems to be established by interaction of Gn and Gc cytoplasmic tails CT with internal viral ribonucleocapsids. (duhnnae.com)
  • infectious
  • Furthermore, that same study theorized that the mutation of Ser-168 affects viral assembly in terms of release: assembled NS2 mutants were unable to exit the cell (and were thus not infectious), suggesting that NS2's importance lies in the very late stages of assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • these groups are represented by infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), and turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since European domestic rabbits do not produce infectious progeny virus, they are considered an incidental or "dead-end" host for CRPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taxonomy
  • For classifying the Carrot yellow-leaf virus, the Baltimore system and the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses system classifies this virus as closteroviridae, or a closterovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sequence comparisons have laid the foundation for a PV taxonomy, which is now officially recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses University of Leicester Archived 5 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola
  • The first recorded human outbreak of Ebola virus disease was in 1976 and since then, there has been considerable effort to define the progression of the disease and the virus responsible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of Ebola virus characterization is rather short as most research on the mechanisms employed by the virus have occurred in the last two decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that eVP24 prevents the activation of an immune response against the Ebola virus without sacrificing its ability to have viral components transported to the nucleus or the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • eVP24 provides Ebola with an advantages over other viruses which disrupt STAT1 because unlike most other viruses, eVP24 uses mimicry of the STAT1 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • helical structure
  • Since the virus has a helical structure (Watson, 1954) and forms highly ordered gels rather than single crystals, the three-dimensional structure must be determined by deconvolution from two-dimensional diffraction patterns of the virus gels which are azimuthally disordered. (springer.com)
  • Influenza A viruses differ by comprising multiple ribonucleoproteins, the viral NP protein organizes the RNA into a helical structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • We observed a strong correlation between assembly kinetics and antiviral effect in cultured cells. (grantome.com)
  • We have demonstrated that interfering with assembly of the viral capsid can be an effective antiviral strategy. (grantome.com)
  • This inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B2 has been found to repress the host's antiviral response to allow the virus to successfully replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • I will also present results of our cryo-EM methods development as applied to studies of cells and viruses. (researchschool.nl)
  • Reassortment of influenza viral RNA (vRNA) segments in co-infected cells can lead to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HEp2, A549, and Vbac cells were infected with the ΔSH and ΔF viruses, both of which contain GFP. (hindawi.com)
  • Iridoviral DNA, unlike other DNA viruses infecting eukaryotic cells, is circularly permuted and exhibits terminal redundancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza viruses have a relatively short incubation period (lapse of time from exposure to pathogen to the appearance of symptoms) of 18-72 hours and infect the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • In particular, I will present data on our cryo-EM structural investigations of pleomorphic enveloped viruses, namely respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus. (researchschool.nl)
  • This virus may be spread from person to person through respiratory droplets or by fomites (non-living material) due to its ability to survive on surfaces for short durations. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Shortly after the first purification of virus by Stanley (1935), structural studies were begun using the methods of biochemistry (Bawden and Pirie, 1937) and X-ray diffraction (Bernal and Fankuchen, 1941). (springer.com)
  • Structural analyses of major capsid protein (MCP) architectures have been used to categorise viruses into families. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinetics
  • The models provide complementary information in support of a common conclusion that the ability of simple pathway models to adequately explain capsid assembly kinetics varies considerably across the space of biologically meaningful assembly parameters. (hindawi.com)
  • infections
  • NS5A inhibitors were the focus of much attention when they emerged as a part of the first curative treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to 1956 there were no known cases of acute infections of Cache Valley virus (CVV) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus may lead to more severe infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, viruses continually cause infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • The leaves of carrots infected with the CYLV virus become yellowish and the internal root core displays necrosis, which can extend from crown to tip. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicular
  • The cytopathogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been attributed mainly to the host shut-off activity of the viral matrix (M) protein, which inhibits both nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport, thereby effectively suppressing the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lassa virus (Arenaviridae) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenaviridae) Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) Marburg Virus (Filoviridae) Ebola virus (Filoviridae) Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus (Paramyxoviridae) Human respiratory syncytial virus (Paramyxoviridae) Parainfluenza (Paramyxoviridae) Rabies (Rhabdoviridae) Vesicular stomatitis virus (Rhabdoviridae) The genome for negative-stranded RNA virus (NSV) consists of one to several single-stranded RNAs, which are assembled into complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza virus
  • Federal scientists have developed a vaccine that protects mice against the killer 1918 influenza virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • These findings are important, the researchers say, to understanding and preventing the recurrence of the H1N1 influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic and to protecting against virulent flu strains in the future, including the H5N1 avian flu virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • Understanding why this influenza virus was so deadly is an extremely important question," says NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "By building upon earlier research where scientists successfully reconstructed the 1918 pandemic flu strain, Dr. Nabel and his colleagues have demonstrated that this virus is vulnerable to intervention. (innovations-report.com)
  • World Health A
  • The report was released jointly by Human Rights Watch and the Safeguarding Health in Conflict coalition as health ministers met in Geneva for the World Health Assembly, the World Health Organization's decision-making body…" (Cumming-Bruce, 5/20). (kff.org)
  • viral
  • After the virus attaches to a host cell, it injects its viral core (the shell containing its DNA) into the cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This was initially challenging but is getting easier with the ease of gene assembly, where whole genes can be synthesized by assembling short oligos together, allowing to build any circuit component independently. (wordpress.com)
  • The virus carries DNA polymerase which is used to transcribe its genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for their ability to cause disease and secondary bacterial infection in swine. (usda.gov)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concluded that infection with the Zika virus in pregnant women is a cause of the birth defect microcephaly and other severe brain abnormalities in babies. (financialexpress.com)
  • Cowpox virus has also infected a variety of animals in European zoos, such as elephants, resulting in human infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, needle sticks with concentrated virus or scratches from infected animals may result in local infection of the skin even in immunized individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • closely
  • Henderson served as Chief of the CDC virus disease surveillance programs from 1960 to 1965, working closely with the inspirational epidemiologist Dr. Alexander Langmuir. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • As an astronaut, he flew to the International Space Station in 2002 (STS-112), 2006 (STS-121) and 2010 (STS-132), where he carried out six spacewalks during the assembly of the orbiting laboratory. (nasa.gov)
  • Research
  • This technique opens a plethora of new research directions requiring non-invasive manipulation of objects at the single molecule/virus level. (phys.org)
  • Virus Research. (usda.gov)
  • Vaccinia virus, maintained in vaccine institutes and research laboratories, has a very wide host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role
  • Although the researchers are not discounting the potential role T-cells may have in combating flu viruses, they concluded that in this study, the experimental DNA vaccine protected the mice by stimulating antibodies capable of neutralizing the 1918 flu virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • Production
  • The researchers found significant responses both in terms of production of T-cells, the white blood cells critical in the immune system's battle against invading viruses, as well as the production of neutralizing antibodies. (innovations-report.com)
  • complex
  • The Proteasome and its subunits are of clinical significance for at least two reasons: (1) a compromised complex assembly or a dysfunctional proteasome can be associated with the underlying pathophysiology of specific diseases, and (2) they can be exploited as drug targets for therapeutic interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • The virus is spread through milk, saliva, ocular secretions, and nasal secretions, and has been shown to remain virulent outside of a host for 4 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • The newly formed virus particles can be released during cell lysis, or they can derive a host cell produced membrane and be released via budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • They are labelled "Type I" if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-dolichol precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Live
  • Live virus Immunization (LVI) with a recent 1-7-4 PRRSV isolate elicits broad protection against PRRSV challenge in finishing age swine. (usda.gov)
  • To determine the vaccine's protective effects, the CDC's Dr. Tumpey intranasally exposed a group of mice to live, reconstructed 1918 virus 14 days after they were immunized with the experimental DNA vaccine. (innovations-report.com)
  • spread
  • Efforts to control the spread of the virus focus on eliminating mosquito breeding sites and taking precautions against mosquito bites such as using insect repellent and mosquito nets. (financialexpress.com)
  • found
  • The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) said Aedes mosquitoes are found in all countries in the Americas except Canada and continental Chile, and the virus will likely reach all countries and territories of the region where Aedes mosquitoes are found. (financialexpress.com)
  • group
  • He was UK delegate to the United Nations General Assembly in 1962, Vice-Chairman of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Defence 1965-1977, Chairman of the British-South Africa Parliamentary Group 1970-1987, on the British-Portuguese Parliamentary Group 1979-1987, and leader of the British delegation to the North Atlantic Assembly 1979-1987, of which he was President, 1983-1985. (wikipedia.org)