• Infection
  • To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. (mdpi.com)
  • The outcome of the infection is related to several factors, among them bacterial ones such as cag A and vac A s1m1 genotype. (scielo.br)
  • The expression of these virulence factors depends on the environmental conditions at the time of infection (see "environment section). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Transcription of hly, as well as other virulence factors of L. monocytogenes within LIPI-1, is activated by the protein encoded by prfA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • combined A repressive effect of Fis and previously characterized negative regulatory factors could be responsible to keep the gene silenced most of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Fis was originally identified as the factor for inversion stimulation of the homologous Hin and Gin site-specific DNA recombinases of Salmonella and phage Mu, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • We could give anti-virulence antibiotics to people with healthy immune systems, who would be able to clear infections with this assistance," he said, "and traditional antibiotics combined with antivirulence therapies to people with compromised immune systems, who really need them. (eurekalert.org)
  • protein
  • prfA is thermoregulated by the PrfA thermoregulator UTR element, such that translation of prfA maximally occurs at 37 °C and is nearly silent at 30 °C. Since 37 °C is within the range of normal body temperature, PrfA protein, as well as listeriolysin O and other virulence factors regulated by PrfA, is only produced when L. monocytogenes is in a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • type III se
  • Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. (mdpi.com)
  • host
  • A PEST-like sequence is present in LLO and is considered essential for virulence, since mutants lacking the sequence lysed the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • This phenotype mimics an effect produced by hepatocyte growth factor which may participate in various aspects of cancer, including metastasis. (wikipedia.org)