• genomes
  • In sequenced genomes, strips of PAI-homologs were defined based on the proximity of the homologs of genes in the same PAI accession. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification and analysis of potential PAIs in prokaryotic genomes will broaden our knowledge on the structure and properties of PAIs and the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the relative simplicity of bacterial genomes, the application of GWASs to identify polymorphisms responsible for important bacterial phenotypes has only recently been made possible through advances in genome sequencing technologies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The determination of the complete DNA sequence of several bacterial genomes has allowed us to search for homologs of the vap genes and to examine their arrangement. (asmscience.org)
  • In the present article we review the differential contribution to the evolution of bacterial genomes that processes such as gene modification, gene acquisition and gene loss may have when bacteria colonize different habitats that present characteristic ecological features. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods. (mdpi.com)
  • CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mode of selection is likely to occur in interactions between unicellular organisms and viruses due to large population sizes, short generation times, often haploid genomes and horizontal gene transfer, which increase the probability of beneficial mutations arising and spreading through populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • Bacterial endotoxins are heat-stable components of the Gram-negative outer membrane that are released after a bacterial cell lyses and are also continuously shed by viable bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • The most common form of food poisoning food poisoning, acute illness following the eating of foods contaminated by bacteria, bacterial toxins, natural poisons, or harmful chemical substances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence Factors of Pathogenic Bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The locus also includes the genes for the proteins that attach themselves to the surface of F− bacteria and initiate conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several proteins coded for in the tra or trb locus seem to open a channel between the bacteria and it is thought that the traD enzyme, located at the base of the pilus, initiates membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only known gene is vicA, the fourth gene in the operon, whose product is a Mas homologue, a protein needed for the switch from citric acid cycle to glyoxylate cycle, both for metabolic reasons and to avoid glyoxylate accumulation, which is toxic for the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • aureus
  • Quoting Staphylococcus aureus as an example, seven housekeeping genes are used in MLST typing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, antivirulence properties of the inhibitor were confirmed with the observation of a significant reduction in the expression of representative virulence genes like fnbA, hla and hld that are governed under S. aureus QS. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to invade tissues and cause an infectious disease is the result of a multi-factorial process supported by the huge number of virulence factors inherent to this microorganism tightly regulated by the accessory gene regulator ( agr ). (springer.com)
  • The ability of S. aureus to produce infection involves a wide variety of virulence determinants, such as exotoxins, adhesins and immune evasion genes, constituting a gene framework that is under the control of global regulators, most notably the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator ( agr ). (springer.com)
  • MRSA is any strain of S. aureus that has developed, through horizontal gene transfer and natural selection, multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The procedure characterizes isolates of microbial species using the DNA sequences of internal fragments of multiple housekeeping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each housekeeping gene, the different sequences present within a bacterial species are assigned as distinct alleles and, for each isolate, the alleles at each of the loci define the allelic profile or sequence type (ST). The first MLST scheme to be developed was for Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each of these housekeeping genes, the different sequences are assigned as alleles and the alleles at the loci provide an allelic profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • While studies on detecting horizontally transferred genes or GIs in genome sequences have been intensively carried out, little has been reported for PAIs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The DNA sequences of agr locus were obtained by whole genome sequencing. (springer.com)
  • These sequences play a key role in a bacterial defense system, and form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR/Cas9 that effectively and specifically changes genes within organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated system) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • BvgR binds to a consensus sequence present within the coding sequences of at least some Bvg-repressed genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many DNA-binding domains must recognize specific DNA sequences, such as DBDs of transcription factors that activate specific genes, or those of enzymes that modify DNA at specific sites, like restriction enzymes and telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • 2012). However, numerous studies have demonstrated that these virulence factors are rarely all present in the same isolate and that they can occur either individually or polygenically with varying frequencies in clinical isolates (Delicato et al . (scielo.org.za)
  • Thus, inhibiting the production or blocking SarA protein might influence the down-regulation of biofilm and virulence factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the attenuation of QS by modulating transcriptional regulators to prevent biofilm formation and inhibit virulence factors offers an attractive strategy to treat such infections ( Hentzer and Givskov, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the virulence factors secreted is the Translocated Intimin Receptor (Tir). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an attaching and effacing (A/E) protein which with other virulence factors is responsible for enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic diarrhoea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription of hly, as well as other virulence factors of L. monocytogenes within LIPI-1, is activated by the protein encoded by prfA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • prfA is thermoregulated by the PrfA thermoregulator UTR element, such that translation of prfA maximally occurs at 37 °C and is nearly silent at 30 °C. Since 37 °C is within the range of normal body temperature, PrfA protein, as well as listeriolysin O and other virulence factors regulated by PrfA, is only produced when L. monocytogenes is in a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its transcription is regulated by the same factors that regulate fasR transcription, but with a higher intensity, suggesting, with the attenuation of virulence in att mutants, that att may regulate fas transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • Tir is also a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that initiates its intimate adherence by inserting a hairpin orientation in the intestinal cell membrane to enable tight binding to intimin on the bacterial cell outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • operon
  • The fas is an operon made of six genes (orf 1-6) and a regulatory gene, fasR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The operon codifies for genes involved in cytokinin synthesis and degradation (orf 4,5,6), in particular for an isopentenyl transferase, a cytokinin oxidase and a glutation-s transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was supposed that the first three genes supply energy for the synthesis and degradation of cytokinin, performed by the last three genes of the operon: R. fascians can actually produce and degrade zeatin and isopentenil adenine. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • A significant number of bacterial species encode multiple copies of the filament building block - flagellin. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Majority of these loci encode OMPs, which are potential targets for host innate and adaptive immune responses. (bl.uk)
  • isolates
  • Of the 45 isolates, 93% were positive for the presence of at least one virulence gene. (scielo.org.za)
  • The kpsM , pstB and ompT genes had the lowest prevalence, having been detected in only 2.2% of the isolates. (scielo.org.za)
  • All 12 virulence genes studied were detected in the 45 APEC isolates. (scielo.org.za)
  • The APEC isolates were profiled as 62.2% fitting profile A, 31.1% profile B and 6.7% profile C. None of the isolates had more than seven virulence genes. (scielo.org.za)
  • Virulence profiles of Zimbabwean APEC isolates are different from those previously reported. (scielo.org.za)
  • The project investigated the combined distribution, frequency and PV status of two important genes, hpuAB and hmbR, in disease (n=221) and carriage (n=305) isolates. (bl.uk)
  • However, >90 % of isolates from CC5, CC8 and CC11 (CCs with the highest disease to carriage ratios) contained both genes. (bl.uk)
  • Further, one or both genes were found in an ON state in 96 % of disease and 66 % of carriage isolates. (bl.uk)
  • The large number of potential alleles at each of the loci provides the ability to distinguish billions of different allelic profiles, and a strain with the most common allele at each locus would only be expected to occur by chance approximately once in 10,000 isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • the relationships between isolates that differ at more than three out of seven loci are likely to be unreliable and should not be taken to infer their phylogeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • It is these cells that are responsible for the low-frequency chromosomal gene transfers that occur in such cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • We complement our study of flagellar abundance with research to understanding how a filament is assembled from multiple flagellins, a trait maintained by many bacterial species. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Thus both the number and type of housekeeping genes interrogated by MLST may differ from species to species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The creation of SNP-typing panels is, however, generally associated with high fixed costs and so few platforms were custom-designed for bacterial species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Host plant species express diverse repertoires of resistance proteins that mediate direct or indirect recognition of bacterial effectors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • isolate
  • Virulence gene profiles were constructed for each APEC isolate from the multiplex data. (scielo.org.za)
  • citation needed] Despite MLST providing high discriminatory power, the accumulation of nucleotide changes in housekeeping genes is a relatively slow process and the allelic profile of a bacterial isolate is sufficiently stable over time for the method to be ideal for global epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • house-keepi
  • To strike the balance between the acceptable identification power, time and cost for the strain typing, about seven to eight house-keeping genes are commonly used in the laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amongst the targets of sRNAs are a number of house-keeping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a technique in molecular biology for the typing of multiple loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the data collection step, definitive identification of variation is obtained by nucleotide sequence determination of gene fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • A PEST-like sequence is present in LLO and is considered essential for virulence, since mutants lacking the sequence lysed the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • PFGE and Southern hybridization showed that the ces genes are restricted to emetic B. cereus and indeed located on a 208 kb megaplasmid, which has high similarities to pXO1-like plasmids. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Plasmids replicate to produce many plasmid molecules in each host bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such beneficial plasmids may be considered bacterial endosymbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Being associated with mitochondria, FAD lifetimes and redox ratio could indicate heterogeneous mitochondrial function, microenvironment with bacterial infection, and further pathway to cell death. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Rotation of the filament is achieved via the action of a universal joint known as the hook and a basal motor anchored into the bacterial cell envelope. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We are also using our work on flagellar systems to begin to investigate the distribution and localization of other molecular machines in the bacterial cell envelope and how they spatially interact with each other to maintain their functional output. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • It is secreted into the host cell membranes and acts as a receptor for intimin which is found on the bacterial surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon phosphorylation, Tir activates condensation and polymerization of actin filaments under the bacterial cell to form a pedestal-like structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intimin is expressed on the bacterial cell surface where it can bind to its receptor Tir (Translocated intimin receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibiotic gene is not usually transferred to the plant cell but remains within the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of copies of each plasmid in a bacterial cell is determined by the replication origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the att locus, which is involved in the cell surface proteins (Matthysse, 1987). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer as are transformation and transduction although these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most other Bordetella toxins, tracheal cytotoxin is expressed constitutively, being a normal product of the breakdown of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • In contrast, little is known about the host's immune response to these infections and its importance in tissue pathology and bacterial clearance. (jove.com)
  • metabolic
  • In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the metabolic changes in HeLa cells upon bacterial infection and made comparison with the results from the cells treated with staurosporine (STS), a well-known apoptosis inducer. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Some cis-acting sRNAs act as riboswitches, which have receptors for specific environmental or metabolic signals and activate or repress genes based on these signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Therefore, studies on bacterial evolution are of increasing interest to understand the basic mechanisms of evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • H-NS silences LEE genes via rigid filament structures bound to the DNA that Ler disrupts and replaces through unknown mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Hence, considering the combined use of antiquorum compounds and conventional antibiotics would be more rationale to address bacterial infections in a superior way. (frontiersin.org)
  • MSSA
  • The mecA gene, which confers the resistance to a number of antibiotics is present in MRSA and not in MSSA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some instances, the mecA gene is present in MSSA but is not expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • The greatest experimental advantage of bacterial GWASs is the potential to perform downstream validation of causality and dissection of mechanism. (beds.ac.uk)