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  • phase
  • Prospective cohort study of the clinical course of HIV-1 infection occurring after candidate HIV-1 vaccination (breakthrough infection) with ALVAC-HIV (vcP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E. This study will enroll volunteers who become HIV-infected during the course of follow up in a phase III preventive HIV vaccine trial conducted in Rayong and Chon Buri, Thailand. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extended Evaluation of the Virologic, Immunologic, and Clinical Course of Volunteers Who Become HIV-1 Infected During Participation in a Phase III Vaccine Trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX® B/E. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • diseases
  • Along with the rapid rise of novel forms of intensive aquaculture, increased global aquatic animal movement and various anthropogenic stress to aquatic ecosystems during the past century, freshwater fish farming industry encounter the emergence and breakout of many diseases, especially viral diseases. (ovid.com)
  • Because of the ability to safely and effectively prevent aquaculture diseases, vaccines have become the mainstream technology for prevention and control of aquatic diseases in the world. (ovid.com)
  • In this review, authors summarized six major cyprinid viral diseases, including koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), spring viraemia of carp (SVC), grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD), koi sleepy disease (KSD), carp pox disease (CPD) and herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HPHN). (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, the development of specific vaccines respective to these diseases is stated according to preparation methods and immunization approaches. (ovid.com)
  • It is hoped that the review could contribute to aquaculture in prevention and controlling of cyprinid viral diseases, and serve the healthy and sustainable development of aquaculture industry. (ovid.com)
  • Peptide libraries, which are comprised of systematic combinations of antigenic peptide fragments, can accelerate the discovery and design of vaccines for these types of viral diseases. (genscript.com)
  • Mimotopes, or peptides that mimic an epitope, are commonly used to develop vaccines and antibodies against multiple types of viral diseases. (genscript.com)
  • His work on rat brains help identify Mov34 protein which has assisted in the development of vaccines for flaviviral diseases like Japanese encephalitis and Dengue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant
  • For adults ages 18 and older there is also an option to receive recombinant flu vaccines (RIV3 or RIV4) which are grown on mammalian cell cultures instead of in eggs, and so are no risk for people with severe egg allergy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mumps
  • Mumps is another viral disease of childhood that was once very common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the autism-related controversy started in 1998, some concern had already arisen about the safety of the MMR vaccine due to side effects associated with the Urabe mumps strain, including rare adverse events of aseptic meningitis, a transient mild form of viral meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A late-1980s trial in Britain of a form of the MMR vaccine containing the Urabe mumps strain produced three cases of probably associated febrile convulsions per 1,000 vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UK National Health Service introduced an MMR vaccine using the Urabe mumps strain in 1988, replacing it entirely with the Jeryl Lynn strain in September 1992 following the identification of an unacceptable risk of aseptic meningitis 15-35 days after vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • With no such risk seen in vaccines using the Jeryl Lynn mumps strain, the UK NHS withdrew two of the three MMR vaccines then available (Immravax, made by Merieux UK, and Pluserix, made by SmithKline Beecham) in favor of Merck Sharp and Dohme's MMR II brand, based on the Jeryl Lynn strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccination
  • The vaccination completely protected the mice from a lethal challenge and restricted the challenge viral replication in the lungs. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are a number of alternate vaccination strategies in current development which may circumvent the need for annual re-vaccination, including new platform technologies such as viral-vectored vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, the Family Research Council opposes mandatory vaccination against HPV, a virus that causes various cancers, writing, "Our primary concern is with the message that would be delivered to nine- to 12-year-olds with the administration of the vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • An outbreak of almost 30,000 cases in 1990 led to a renewed push for vaccination and the addition of a second vaccine to the recommended schedule. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitopes
  • The magnitude of T cell responses to the vaccine immunogen was correlated with the breadth of the T cell responses to different epitopes. (bl.uk)
  • Once the epitopes have been identified, they can be used to develop serodiagnostics or identify antibodies that might be used for vaccine development. (genscript.com)
  • Peptide-based vaccines usually consist of cancer specific-epitopes and often require an adjuvant (for example, GM-CSF) to stimulate the immune system and enhance antigenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • There was a statistically significant increase in antibodies to the H3N2 strain when the vaccines were co-administered, suggesting that the MVA-NP+M1 can act as an adjuvant. (bl.uk)
  • Blood samples, nasal swabs and semen can be used for isolation of the virus, detection of the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and detection of antibodies by ELISA and virus neutralisation tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • These vaccines prevent disease, but do not block viral replication, and vaccinated, infected birds can shed wild type virus. (virology.ws)
  • The authors note that most human vaccines do prevent replication of infecting virus. (virology.ws)
  • Because virus replication is dependent on host cell components, determining the genes needed for this process allows for the development of novel disease intervention strategies that include anti-virals and vaccines," said study co-author Ralph Tripp, a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar and Chair of Animal Health Vaccine Development in the UGA College of Veterinary Medicine. (medindia.net)
  • Known for his studies in the fields of RNA virus replication and vaccine development, Vrati is an elected fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, India and the Indian Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vrati's early researches at THSTI focused on JEV life-cycle like receptor binding and entry mechanisms, molecular mechanisms of virus replication, assembly, egress as well as the clinical development of an oral rotavirus vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of the differences among viral species, they all share six basic replication stages: Attachment is the cycle's starting point and consists of specific bindings between anti-receptors (or virus-attachment proteins) and cellular receptors molecules such as (glyco)proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • The subsequent vaccine organism retains the ability to duplicate and produce immunity , but generally does not cause illness. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here, we describe characterization, immunogenicity, antigenicity, and protective immunity induced by low pH treated inactivated whole viral vaccine in comparison with the untreated vaccine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The combined MMR vaccine was introduced to induce immunity less painfully than three separate injections at the same time, and sooner and more efficiently than three injections given on different dates. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene therapy
  • Drug Development & Delivery recently interviewed Dave Backer, Head of Virus & Gene Therapy Strategic Initiatives at MilliporeSigma, to discuss its expanding GMP capacity to speed development and manufacture of gene therapies, immunotherapies, and viral vaccines. (drug-dev.com)
  • The clinical manufacturing of intermediates and final products used in viral vaccines and gene therapies requires dedicated facilities, and there is significant demand for these services in the growing cell and gene therapy market. (drug-dev.com)
  • polio
  • The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRC-5 cells are used to produce several vaccines including MMR, Varicella and Polio. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic
  • Uncoating is the removal of viral capsid, which makes the viral nucleic acids available for transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembly process involves putting together and modifying newly-made viral nucleic acids and structural proteins to form the virus's nucleocapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene-based vaccines are composed of the nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) encoding for the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • For this to occur, the virus first recognizes and binds to specific receptors on the cell surface, resulting in fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and subsequent endocytosis. (genscript.com)
  • development
  • One of the advances in preventing cervical cancer has been the development of a vaccine against the human papillomavirus. (sharecare.com)
  • There are real opportunities to improve production yield as well as viral vector purity through the combination of cell line and media development, bioreactor-based expansion, and downstream processing improvements. (drug-dev.com)
  • After reviewing the list of vaccines in development, I decided to explore a handful of interesting viral vaccines that are in late stage development. (cellculturedish.com)
  • While there are several other Dengue Fever vaccines candidates in various phases of development, Sanofi's is the furthest along. (cellculturedish.com)
  • Later, he concentrated on the development of DNA vaccines and the details of the work has since been published as an article, DNA vaccines: Getting closer to becoming a reality, in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers in labs across the globe have since used WI-38 in their discoveries, most notably in the development of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reverse genetics also assist in the development of new flu vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientific consensus is the MMR vaccine has no link to the development of autism, and that this vaccine's benefits greatly outweigh its risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • As the first report of using non-toxic natural compounds for the preparation of inactivated viral vaccines, the present results could be translated into a clinically relevant vaccine platform with improved efficacy, safety, productivity, and public acceptance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lower efficacy of cross-protection against heterosubtypic virus was observed in the low-pH treated vaccine group. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results provide evidence that there is a correlation between protective efficacy and the stability of vaccines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The lower efficacy is believed to be the result of the vaccine preventing only 3 of the 4 serotypes. (cellculturedish.com)
  • The efficacy of dendritic cell vaccines may be limited due to difficulty in getting the cells to migrate to lymph nodes and interact with T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While cancer vaccines have generally been demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy still needs improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • propagation
  • This review summarizes the diversity of cellular substrates for propagation of viral vaccines from primary tissue explants and embryonated chicken eggs to designed continuous cell lines of human and avian origin. (duhnnae.com)
  • 2016
  • In the most recent guidelines, for 2016-2017, a change was made, that children with a history of egg allergy may receive the IIV3 or IIV4 vaccine without special precautions. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • For therapeutic vaccines, combined therapies can be more aggressive, but greater care to ensure the safety of relatively healthy patients is needed for combinations involving preventive vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1N1
  • Evidence of an earlier outbreak of pandemic H1N1 may necessitate earlier administration of vaccine. (scielo.org.za)
  • Another Reuters article, Narcolepsy link to Glaxo vaccine poses challenge for FDA, describes how recent studies conducted in England, Sweden, Finland and Ireland have found a heightened risk of developing narcolepsy for those who received GSK's Pandemrix vaccine during the H1N1 swine flu pandemic. (cellculturedish.com)
  • doses
  • In the Reuters Narcolepsy article, it states that GSK administered 30 million doses of the Pandermix vaccine and 800 developed narcolepsy, mostly children. (cellculturedish.com)
  • disease
  • We also discuss future perspectives and limitations in the field that will need to be addressed before new vaccines can significantly impact disease levels. (mdpi.com)
  • Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by equine arteritis virus, an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigeon pox is a viral disease to which pigeons are susceptible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of the evidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service, and the Cochrane Library all found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • To induce T cell responses to hepatitis C virus, I used the vaccines ChAd3-NSmut and MVA-NSmut in a prime-boost regimen. (bl.uk)
  • manufacture
  • He is also a visiting scientist at the Pasteur Institute, Paris and an executive director of Bharat Immunologicals and Biologicals Corporation, a Government of India undertaking involved in the manufacture of vaccines and immunizers. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • 2009 - Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute uses modified SAN heart genes to create the first viral pacemaker in guinea pigs, now known as iSANs. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • Increasing uptake of the vaccine following outbreaks in 1971 and 1977 brought this down to thousands of cases per year in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • No treatment for NDV exists, but the use of prophylactic vaccines and sanitary measures reduces the likelihood of outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • For women, the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine protects against cervical cancer, and for both men and women it protects against genital warts and several oral and anal cancers. (sharecare.com)
  • Initially I show that the viral vectored vaccine MVA-NP+M1 can boost memory T cell responses to influenza A virus in adults aged over 50 years old. (bl.uk)
  • 34 weeks), some individuals were able to achieve higher frequencies of virus-specific T cells compared to the first round of vaccines. (bl.uk)
  • Penetration of virus happens either through membrane fusion or receptor-mediated endocytosis and leads to viral entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza vaccines are created by injecting a live virus into fertilized chicken eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral vaccines usually work by preventing the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • Since tumors often evolve mechanisms to suppress the immune system, immune checkpoint blockade has recently received a lot of attention as a potential treatment to be combined with vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Such T cell responses can be generated with the use of viral vectored vaccines. (bl.uk)
  • Re-administration of the same two vaccines after a short time interval (8 weeks) did not improve upon previous peaks in T cell response. (bl.uk)
  • The cell line, isolated by Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead in the 1960s, has been used extensively in scientific research, with applications ranging from developing important theories in molecular biology to the production of many types of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-based vaccines include tumor cells or tumor cell lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best known dendritic cell vaccine is Sipuleucel-T (Provenge), which only improved survival by four months. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • A further consideration is that incorporation of the pandemic strain into the regular seasonal influenza vaccine means that both pandemic and regular seasonal risk groups will now need to be addressed in a combined recommendation. (scielo.org.za)
  • Human
  • What are the benefits of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine? (sharecare.com)
  • This behavior has been well documented in human populations, yet the virulence of poliovirus has not increased for the 60 years during which the Salk vaccine has been used. (virology.ws)
  • History Vaccine types How they work Recommended Schedule Specific Vaccines Flu HIV/AIDS Human Papillomavirus (HPV) To stick or not to stick? (slideserve.com)
  • adverse
  • Concerns about adverse reactions to the vaccine were raised by American and Canadian authorities based on reports from Japan linking Urabe MMR with meningoencephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • Prospective cohort study of the clinical course of HIV-1 infection occurring after candidate HIV-1 vaccination (breakthrough infection) with ALVAC-HIV (vcP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E. This study will enroll volunteers who become HIV-infected during the course of follow up in a phase III preventive HIV vaccine trial conducted in Rayong and Chon Buri, Thailand. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extended Evaluation of the Virologic, Immunologic, and Clinical Course of Volunteers Who Become HIV-1 Infected During Participation in a Phase III Vaccine Trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX® B/E. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Swine
  • The Spanish flu, also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of swine influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • In April 2011, GeoVax Labs, Inc. in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) announced an expansion of the current Phase 2a clinical trial to include a new component. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission
  • Increased mother-to-child transmission is related to specific deficiencies in micronutrients such as vitamin A. Further, anemia, a decrease in the number of red blood cells, increases viral shedding in the birth canal, which also increases risk of mother-to-child transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical
  • Biovest is currently conducting a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial for BiovaxID which is a patient-specific anti-cancer vaccine focusing on the treatment of follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (drugs.com)
  • GeoVax is currently conducting multiple site Phase 2 Human clinical trials for HIV/AIDS preventative vaccine products following successful completion of multiple Phase 1 human clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002 laboratory space, equipment and personnel were acquired and work on an HIV-1 vaccine development plan began, and in May 2006 human clinical trials of the drug began. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 2010, the AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta (ARCA) began patient recruitment for a Phase 1 clinical trial sponsored by GeoVax Labs, Inc., investigating GeoVax's DNA/MVA vaccine as a treatment for individuals already infected with HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • HVTN 205 Study-In early 2009, the HVTN began enrolling patients in a preventative Phase 2 clinical trial sponsored by GeoVax Labs, Inc. This study is investigating a prime-boost approach using GeoVax's combination DNA/MVA vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • The vaccine is based on a live attenuated vaccine developed against dengue virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Status of vaccines for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States and Canada. (usda.gov)
  • After the virus attaches to a host cell, it injects its viral core (the shell containing its DNA) into the cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine is made from weakened yellow fever virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In no case of vaccine related illness has there been evidence of the virus reverting to a virulent phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variola was eradicated using vaccinia virus as a vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia virus, maintained in vaccine institutes and research laboratories, has a very wide host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Third, on an individual basis, knowledge of your cat's viral status, especially a confirmed positive viral status, will be helpful in determining the appropriate monitoring or treatment options in the event of future illness. (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • development
  • Formed in 2001 in Atlanta, Georgia, the approach used in HIV-1 vaccine development was originally based on preclinical work done by Dr. Harriet Robinson from 1992 to 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • status
  • Determination of your cat's FeLV and FIV viral status is important for a number of reasons. (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • This allows us to make appropriate husbandry decisions (for example, the maintenance of a single cat household or confinement of the cat indoors) in the event of a confirmed positive viral status. (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • develop
  • The long-term therapeutic goal is to develop a vaccine-based mechanism to treat infected individuals that either prevents or significantly slows progression to symptomatic HIV, including AIDS, by stimulating an infected individual's immune system to resist the progression of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Hot bath therapies that involve up to 30 minutes a day, six days a week for at least three weeks are known to help individuals with type 2 diabetes reduce their blood sugar, lose weight and correct They're resting patterns, what is pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine. (takashikusui.com)
  • The technology is being developed as a defense system to rapidly produce vaccines against emerging pathogens, and as a method to safeguard the blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • months
  • The 17D vaccine is contraindicated in (among others) infants between zero and six months or over 59 years of age, people with thymus disorders associated with abnormal immune cell function, people with primary immunodeficiencies, and anyone with a diminished immune capacity including those taking immunosuppressant drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The article begins by stating that of the 7 people who developed system failure within 2 to 5 days of the vaccine in 1996-2001, 6 died "including 2 who were vaccinated even though they were planning to travel to countries where yellow fever has never been reported. (wikipedia.org)