• Antigens
  • These proteins have very high complementarity in the binding interface, similar to the complementarity shown between antibodies and antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • For both antigens, when synthesis was induced, CD8 epitope display rose quickly to near maximum within 24 h, well before steady state levels of mature protein had been reached, whereas CD4 epitope presentation was delayed by 36-48 h and rose only slowly thereafter. (harvard.edu)
  • VP35
  • The current study focuses on chemoinformatic approaches to identify virtual hits against Ebola viral proteins (VP35 and VP40), including protein binding site prediction, drug-likeness, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, metabolic site prediction, and molecular docking. (mdpi.com)
  • virally
  • The protein, called vFLIP K13, had been thought to protect virally infected cells from attack by the body's own immune system by inhibiting the activity of a cellular protein called caspase 8 that is associated with apoptosis, or programmed cell death. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Here we use one such pathogen, the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), to examine the kinetics of these processes in the virally-infected cell, comparing newly synthesised polypeptides versus the mature protein pool as viral antigen sources for MHC I- and MHC II-restricted presentation. (harvard.edu)
  • We infer that, in virally-infected MHC I/II-positive cells, newly-synthesised polypeptides are the dominant source of antigen feeding the MHC I pathway, whereas the MHC II pathway is fed by the mature protein pool. (harvard.edu)
  • A third class of virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins consists of proteins that bind directly to cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteases
  • The genome is then translated into a polyprotein, which is then cleaved at specific cleavage sequences by three proteases, HC-Pro, and P1 and NIa-Pro, which are also encoded in the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Host cell lipid metabolism plays a major role in the infectious life cycle of HCV and several of the viral proteins are shown to be involved in the recruitment of viral complexes to the lipid droplets, LDs [ 6 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • eVP24 was found to have characteristics of typical viral matrix proteins, such as a strong association with lipid bilayers and the ability to oligomerize to form tetramers. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Students working in pairs or small groups receive a simulated virus: two paper cups taped together, enclosing a strip of paper listing an RNA or DNA sequence (an abbreviated viral genome). (asmscience.org)
  • HIV-2 contains both a Vpr protein and a related (by sequence homology) Vpx protein (Viral Protein X). Two functions of Vpr in HIV-1 are split between Vpr and Vpx in HIV-2, with the HIV-2 Vpr protein inducing cell cycle arrest and the Vpx protein required for nuclear import. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it lacks significant sequence identity with any known vertebrate proteins, it seems likely that it evolved from a DNA glycosylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variance between strains is due to sequence differentiation in the coat protein gene, occasionally leading to a different immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola
  • Studies on Ebola viral proteins have shown that some can elicit an immunological response in mice, and these are now considered essential components of a vaccine designed to protect against Ebola haemorrhagic fever. (mdpi.com)
  • Ebola viral protein 24 (eVP24) is considered a multifunctional secondary matrix protein present in viral particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that eVP24 prevents the activation of an immune response against the Ebola virus without sacrificing its ability to have viral components transported to the nucleus or the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • coat protein
  • The major product of this system, the coat protein, was separated from the in vitro reaction mixtures and analysed by the peptide mapping procedure. (openthesis.org)
  • The pitch of the helix is of the basic helix 3.3-3.7 nm (8-9 copies of the coat protein per turn). (wikipedia.org)
  • The coat itself is composed of 1000-1500 copies of the coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coat protein has a molecular weight of ~25kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ff phages have a circular ssDNA genome wrapped in a few thousand copies of the major coat protein to give a rod shaped viral particle that is capped on either end with two different sets of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In this review we focus on the interaction of viral proteins with important regulators of cell cycle-oncoproteins YB-1, p53, and cyclin D1-which play a major role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and genomic stability. (hindawi.com)
  • It forms a heterodimeric complex with its cellular target protein (HBX interacting protein: HBXIP), and this interaction dysregulates centrosome dynamics and mitotic spindle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • 3. Detection of viral antigen in normal murine cells and tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • by contrast, latent infections, in which viral gene expression has been extinguished yet viral proteins persist, will remain visible to CD4+ T cells. (harvard.edu)
  • They screened the proteins one by one to see if they interacted with or changed the expression of the roughly 20,000 different proteins in human cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • In a study purifying cancerous liver cells infected with HBV, the level of expression of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) was found to be associated with changes in transcription due to the methyltransferase function of PRMT1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptotopes are antigenically active only after the dissociation of protein aggregates and virions Some infectious pathogens are known to escape immunological targeting by B-cells by masking antigen-binding sites as cryptotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • NS1 is the most abundant protein in BTV infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFKB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Furthermore, because proper trafficking of viral proteins is necessary for their function, discovering the requirements for MAM to mitochondrial trafficking of essential viral proteins may provide novel targets for the rational design of anti-viral drugs. (nih.gov)
  • transcription
  • It is 154 amino acids long and interferes with transcription, signal transduction, cell cycle progress, protein degradation, apoptosis and chromosomal stability in the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • HBx causes dysregulation by binding to genomic DNA, changing expression patterns of miRNAs, affecting histone methyltransferases, binding to SIRT1 protein to activate transcription, and cooperating with histone methylases and demethylases to change cell expression patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The findings, published in the Aug. 22 online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), demonstrate that a viral protein associated with human herpesvirus 8, or HHV8, may help to cause lymphoma by activating a key pathway involved in the production of lymphocytes, a common cell type found in lymphoid tissue that divide over and over and eventually develop into lymphoma. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The ribosome has traditionally been viewed as the cell's molecular machine, automatically chugging along, synthesizing proteins the cell needs to carry out the functions of life. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • An E-coli cell-free protein synthesizing system directed by R17 RNA was used to examine the fidelity of translation in vitro. (openthesis.org)
  • This is because the X protein promotes cell cycle progression while binding to and inhibiting tumor suppressor protein p53 from performing their role. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ssDNA circles are converted to dsDNA like the original viral genome and the RFs accumulate in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation of these proteins leads to cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle
  • The viron is constructed of two concentric protein shells, the sub-core layer which contain 120 copies/particle of the VP3 and the core-surface layer composed of 780 copies/particle of the VP7. (wikipedia.org)
  • ubiquitin ligase
  • VprBP acts as a substrate-recognition unit when associated with DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1) as part of a CUL4-DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Vpr-binding protein (VprBP) is a 1,507-amino-acid human protein that contains conserved domains, including YXXY repeats, the Lis homology motif, and WD40 repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • These phages undergo a non-lytic lifecycle, in which infected bacteria are not killed, but continuously release viral particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • As a mechanism for artefactual inhibition of proteins through non-specific compounds, virtual hits were assessed for their aggregator potential compared with previously reported aggregators. (mdpi.com)