• genome
  • Moreover, the large size of the viral genome enables cloning of large segments of DNA and consequent expression of complex protein aggregates. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Their genome single-stranded (+) sense RNA is that functions as mRNA after entry into the cell and all viral mRNA synthesized is of genome polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral genome is around 2500 nm in length so we can therefore conclude that it must be tightly packaged within the capsid along with substances such as sodium ions in order to cancel out the negative charges on the RNA caused by the phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral genome is single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with a molecular weight of 1.4 × 106 (i.e., about 26.5% of the weight of the complete virion). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Vaccination with a mixture of SLPs containing MHC class II epitopes and OX40 agonistic antibodies resulted in a moderate reduction of the viral titers after challenge with lytic MCMV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Depending on the virus, the plaque forming units are measured by microscopic observation, fluorescent antibodies or specific dyes that react with infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An issue with this assay that has recently been identified is that the neutralization ability of the antibodies is dependent on the virion maturation state and the cell-type used in the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, if the wrong cell line is used for the assay it may seem that the antibodies have neutralization ability when they actually do not, or vice versa they may seem ineffective when they actually possess neutralization ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilutions
  • Like the plaque assay, host cell monolayers are infected with various dilutions of the virus sample and allowed to incubate for a relatively brief incubation period (e.g., 24-72 hours) under a semisolid overlay medium that restricts the spread of infectious virus, creating localized clusters (foci) of infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outcome
  • If the assay involves addition of exogenous reactants (the reagents), then their quantities are kept fixed (or in excess) so that the quantity (and quality) of the target is the only limiting factor for the reaction/assay process, and the difference in the assay outcome is used to deduce the unknown quality or quantity of the target in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The lesions appeared to primarily represent the destructive consequences of viral replication, and animals could be protected from HSE by acyclovir treatment provided 4 d after ocular infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • The miR-155KO animals were also more susceptible to development of zosteriform lesions, a reflection of viral replication and dissemination within the nervous system. (jimmunol.org)
  • Once virus enters the brain, the lesions that follow are considered to be either the consequence of viral replication in critical cells ( 3 , 6 ) and/or caused by an inflammatory response to the infection ( 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Overall, these data suggest that in hamsters hE16 can ameliorate neurological disease after significant viral replication has occurred, although there is a time window that limits therapeutic efficacy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • for example, to measure replication in the presence or absence of a research pharmaceutical, the testing for the presence of rabies virus, or the growth of viral stocks for research purposes as host cells for eukaryotic parasites, specially of the trypanosomatids The Vero cell lineage is continuous and aneuploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Mutating the G_GUU_UUU shift site to inhibit frameshifting results in an attenuated virus with reduced growth kinetics and a small-plaque phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Once viral stocks have been prepared and titered, a protocol for testing the virus in small‐scale cultures is provided to determine the kinetics of expression, which allows evaluation of various cell culture and infection conditions aimed at developing optimal levels of protein production (e.g., comparisons of different host cell lines, media, and environmental parameters). (currentprotocols.com)
  • Viral plaque assays determine the number of plaque forming units (pfu) in a virus sample, which is one measure of virus quantity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A viral plaque is formed when a virus infects a cell within the fixed cell monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plaque formation can take 3-14 days, depending on the virus being analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This endpoint dilution assay quantifies the amount of virus required to kill 50% of infected hosts or to produce a cytopathic effect in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appearance of the plaque depends on the host strain, virus and the conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of serum to reduce the number of plaques by 50% compared to the serum free virus gives the measure of how much antibody is present or how effective it is. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plaque reduction neutralization test for human cytomegalovirus based upon enhanced uptake of neutral red by virus-infected cells" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • By serially diluting a virus suspension into an assay tray (a series of wells of uniform volume) and adding a standard amount of blood cells, an estimation of the number of virus particles can be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • A viral infection following Japanese encephalitis virus infection also increased GPR84 expression by 2-4.5% in the mice brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results from baculovirus analyzed with this dual-channel virus counter system were lower in magnitude than the SNaPE results, being more similar in magnitude and correlated with infectious assay results. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Ideal for a variety of applications such as in-gel manipulation, tissue and cell culture, and viral plaque assays. (alfa.com)
  • The infected cell area will create a plaque (an area of infection surrounded by uninfected cells) which can be seen visually or with an optical microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g. agar). (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • Plaques are generally counted manually and the results, in combination with the dilution factor used to prepare the plate, are used to calculate the number of plaque forming units per sample unit volume (pfu/mL). (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • For assay of currency coins, this literally meant analysis of the purity of the gold or silver or whatever precious component was used to represent the true value of the coin. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assay (analysis) is never an isolated process and must be combined with pre- and post-analytic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • On the other hand, older generation qualitative assays, especially bioassays, may be much more gross and less quantitative (e.g., counting death or dysfunction of an organism or cells in a population, or some descriptive change in some body part of a group of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • While less accurate than a plaque assay, it is cheaper and quicker (taking just 30 minutes). (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Some partially lysogenic phages give bull's-eye plaques with spots or rings of growth in the middle of clear regions of complete lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • standard
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Finally, it has also shown that GPR84 expression is increased in both the normal appearing white matter and plaque in brains from human Multiple Sclerosis patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Those assays that are very highly commercially demanded have been well investigated in research and development sectors of professional industries, undergone generations of development and sophistication, and become copyrighted intellectual properties via highly competitive process patenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • scale
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • The measured entity is generally called the analyte, the measurand or the target of the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • But generally, assays involve biological material or phenomena which tend to be intrinsically more complex either in composition or in behavior or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Cohen, Jack S., "Chemically Modified Oligodeoxynucleotide Analogs as Regulators of Viral and Cellular Gene Expression," Gene Regulation: Biology of Antisense RNA and DNA, 247-259, 1992. (patentgenius.com)
  • post
  • Similarly, after the assay, the result may be documented, verified and transmitted/communicated in steps that are called post-analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e. not only analytic variations and errors intrinsic to the assay itself but also variations and errors involved in preanalytic and post analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)