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  • serogroup
  • Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a member of the Bunyavirales order, Orthobunyavirus genus, and Bunyamwera serogroup, which was first isolated in 1956 from Culiseta inornata mosquitos collected in Utah's Cache Valley. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jamestown Canyon
  • Sera also were tested for neutralizing antibodies to the closely related Jamestown Canyon virus by PRNT to rule out potential cross-reactivity. (cdc.gov)
  • encodes
  • The L RNA encodes the viral RNA dependent RNA Polymerase or L Protein The taxonomy remains somewhat fluid as relatively few viral genomes in this genus have been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large segment of related bunyaviruses is approximately 6800 bases in length and encodes a probable viral polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The L segment encodes the RNA Dependent RNA-polymerase, necessary for viral RNA replication and mRNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The M segment encodes the viral glycoproteins, which project from the viral surface and aid the virus in attaching to and entering the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tick-borne
  • Vaccination is available against tick-borne and Japanese encephalitis and should be considered for at-risk individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word tibovirus (TIck-BOrne virus) is sometimes used to more specifically describe viruses transmitted by ticks, a superorder within the arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymerase
  • Blood test Urine analysis Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the cerebrospinal fluid, to detect the presence of viral DNA which is a sign of viral encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is encoded by the L protein which contains conserved characteristic motifs throughout all the RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerase brought along with the virus initially binds to a promoter on the L and S segments and begins transcription from negative-stranded to a positive-stranded mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • eastern
  • The virus is found in the eastern US and, although there have been no reported cases in Canada, could become a concern with its vector's continued expansion northward. (cpha.ca)
  • It has long been suspected that LAC encephalitis has a broader distribution and a higher incidence in the eastern United States, but is under-reported because the causal agent is often not specifically identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • POW encephalitis mirrors signs of similar arthropod-borne illnesses, such as eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) or La Crosse encephalitis (LAC). (healthmap.org)
  • occurs
  • Death from LAC encephalitis occurs in less than 1% of clinical cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A primary spread of virus occurs, with seeding of the reticuloendothelial system, mainly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the ongoing replication of the virus a secondary spread occurs, with the seeding of the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • North America
  • It is the second most reported mosquito-borne disease in North America behind West Nile virus. (cpha.ca)
  • Chen CC, Jenkins E, Epp T, Waldner C, Curry PS, Soos C. Climate change and West Nile virus in a highly endemic region of North America. (cpha.ca)
  • LCMV
  • There are several strains of LCM virus, among which the most widely used are LCMV Armstrong and LCMV Clone 13. (wikipedia.org)
  • When LCMV attacks a cell, the process of replication starts by attachment of the virus to host receptors through its surface glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their key experiment involved harvesting of splenocytes containing LCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) from an infected mouse strain A. These were then mixed in vitro with virus infected fibroblasts or macrophages from two different mouse strains, A and B. By the method of Cr-release cytotoxicity assay, thereby tagging the CTL with chromium-51 (Cr-51), the CTL destruction of infected cells was quantified by release of Cr-51. (wikipedia.org)
  • West Nile
  • West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in 1999 and by 2003 had spread to almost every state with over 3,000 cases in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the West Nile virus came in 1937, and has since been found in Culex populations causing epidemics throughout Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this vector-host relationship can be observed in the transmission of the West Nile virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • arboviral
  • Factors influencing the transmission and control of arboviral encephalitis, in general, include: the season, geographical location, patient age, and the regional climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Children 16 years of age and under are most susceptible to La Crosse disease. (shelbycountytn.gov)
  • In about 9000 BC, when many people began to settle on the fertile flood plains of the River Nile, the population became dense enough for the virus to maintain a constant presence because of the high concentration of susceptible people. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is encoded by the L protein which contains conserved characteristic motifs throughout all the RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerase brought along with the virus initially binds to a promoter on the L and S segments and begins transcription from negative-stranded to a positive-stranded mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large segment of related bunyaviruses is approximately 6800 bases in length and encodes a probable viral polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The L RNA encodes the viral RNA dependent RNA Polymerase or L Protein The taxonomy remains somewhat fluid as relatively few viral genomes in this genus have been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The L segment encodes the RNA Dependent RNA-polymerase, necessary for viral RNA replication and mRNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • In the 20th century many diseases both old and new were found to be caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although scientific interest in them arose because of the diseases they cause, most viruses are beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other epidemics of viral diseases that depend on large concentrations of people, such as mumps, rubella and polio, also first occurred at this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Central Nervous System viral diseases are caused by viruses that attack the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of new therapies has been hindered by the lack of appropriate animal model systems for some important viruses and also because of the difficulty in conducting human clinical trials for diseases that are rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIck-BOrne
  • The word tibovirus (TIck-BOrne virus) is sometimes used to more specifically describe viruses transmitted by ticks, a superorder within the arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza
  • On the other hand, transverse myelitis or leukomyelitis, or white matter myelitis, are often caused by the herpesviruses and influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequently
  • On the other hand, Clone 13 is a variant of the Armstrong viral strain, isolated from the spleen and is consequently tropic for visceral organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some envelope proteins facilitate viral entry into the cell, and others have directly pathogenic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A heterodimer of integral transmembrane proteins Gn and Gc form spikes on the surface of the virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) codes for two non-structural proteins: NSm on the medium RNA segment and NSs on the smallest RNA segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses contain no matrix proteins. (wikipedia.org)