• humans
  • If the female mosquito is infected, she may lay eggs that carry the virus, and the adults coming from those eggs may be able to transmit the virus to chipmunks and to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Western equine encephalitis (WEE) occurs in the United States where it causes disease in humans, horses, and some bird species. (wikipedia.org)
  • CVV rarely infects humans, but when they are infected it has caused encephalitis and multiorgan failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The female mosquito lays eggs that carry the virus, and the offspring can transmit the virus to deer or ruminants and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemics caused by viruses began when human behaviour changed during the Neolithic period, around 12,000 years ago, when humans developed more densely populated agricultural communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having evolved from viruses that infected other animals, they first appeared in humans in Europe and North Africa thousands of years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus, which only infected humans, probably descended from the poxviruses of rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans probably came into contact with these rodents, and some people became infected by the viruses they carried. (wikipedia.org)
  • When viruses cross this so-called "species barrier", their effects can be severe, and humans may have had little natural resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most viruses are species-specific and would have posed no threat to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes viruses first infected the ancestors of modern humans over 80 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though generally found in arthropods or rodents, certain viruses in this order occasionally infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyamwera
  • The type species is Bunyamwera virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a member of the Bunyavirales order, Orthobunyavirus genus, and Bunyamwera serogroup, which was first isolated in 1956 from Culiseta inornata mosquitos collected in Utah's Cache Valley. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) codes for two non-structural proteins: NSm on the medium RNA segment and NSs on the smallest RNA segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyamwera virus NSs protein is a nonessential gene that contributes to viral pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aedes
  • LAC virus is a zoonotic pathogen cycled between the daytime-biting treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus, and vertebrate amplifier hosts (chipmunks, tree squirrels) in deciduous forest habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • An explanation to this may be that the mosquito Aedes albopictus is also an efficient vector of La Crosse virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is mostly found in woodland habitats, between the treehole mosquito (Aedes triseriatus) and vertebrate hosts (such as chipmunks and squirrels). (shelbycountytn.gov)
  • Polymerase
  • Blood test Urine analysis Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the cerebrospinal fluid, to detect the presence of viral DNA which is a sign of viral encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The L RNA encodes the viral RNA dependent RNA Polymerase or L Protein The taxonomy remains somewhat fluid as relatively few viral genomes in this genus have been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large segment of related bunyaviruses is approximately 6800 bases in length and encodes a probable viral polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The L segment encodes the RNA Dependent RNA-polymerase, necessary for viral RNA replication and mRNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is encoded by the L protein which contains conserved characteristic motifs throughout all the RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerase brought along with the virus initially binds to a promoter on the L and S segments and begins transcription from negative-stranded to a positive-stranded mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza
  • Inhibits influenza A virus (IAV) replication by decreasing or delaying NP synthesis and by blocking endocytic traffic of incoming virus particles. (genecards.org)
  • eastern
  • It has long been suspected that LAC encephalitis has a broader distribution and a higher incidence in the eastern United States, but is under-reported because the causal agent is often not specifically identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114677/Eastern-equine-encephalitis. (wellmont.org)
  • Technical fact sheet: eastern equine encephalitis. (wellmont.org)
  • LCMV
  • There are several strains of LCM virus, among which the most widely used are LCMV Armstrong and LCMV Clone 13. (wikipedia.org)
  • When LCMV attacks a cell, the process of replication starts by attachment of the virus to host receptors through its surface glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their key experiment involved harvesting of splenocytes containing LCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) from an infected mouse strain A. These were then mixed in vitro with virus infected fibroblasts or macrophages from two different mouse strains, A and B. By the method of Cr-release cytotoxicity assay, thereby tagging the CTL with chromium-51 (Cr-51), the CTL destruction of infected cells was quantified by release of Cr-51. (wikipedia.org)