• mutations
  • All integrated viral genomes recovered from MCC tissue or MCC cell lines harbor signature mutations in the early gene transcript encoding for the large T-Antigen (LT-Ag). (jove.com)
  • responses
  • Following immunization, rhesus macaques mounted strong HCV-specific T cell immune responses strikingly similar to those reported in patients who have cleared the virus on their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • The responses included strong HCV antigen-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) induction, robust CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation, and induction of polyfunctional T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of possibilities have been proposed to explain why people infected with HCV fail to resolve this virus despite generating both cellular and humoral immune responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • vitro
  • Nevertheless, significant efforts have been directed at developing cell culture models to elucidate the viral lifecycle in vitro. (hindawi.com)
  • HCV in vitro research is therefore limited to human hepatoma cell lines permissive for virus entry and completion of the viral life cycle. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, HBV and HBV-derived proteins were examined for their effect on human pDC in vitro. (jove.com)
  • particles
  • Negative-stain electron microscopy revealed that the particles were spherical (~40- to 75-nm diameter) and pleomorphic and that some of them contain HCV E2 protein and apolipoprotein E on their surfaces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cellular
  • Here we describe an efficient assay that can be used to rapidly determine the cellular cytotoxicity and efficacy of a compound against WT and mutant viral strains. (jove.com)
  • synthesis
  • These include targeting the recognition molecules for the avoidance of detection, targeting key enzymes and complexes of the complement pathways like C3 convertases and C5b-9 formation - either by encoding complement regulators or by recruiting membrane-bound and soluble host complement regulators, cleaving complement proteins by encoding protease, and inhibiting the synthesis of complement proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • bind
  • In line, HBsAg preferentially bound to TLR9-triggered pDC demonstrating that once pDC are able to bind HBV/HBsAg, the virus exerts its immune regulatory effect. (jove.com)
  • allosteric
  • Small molecules binding at the interface between the protease and helicase domains can stabilize the closed conformation of the protein and thus block the catalytic function of HCV NS3/4A protein via an allosteric regulation mechanism. (jove.com)
  • Here, we aimed to provide some insight into the inhibitor binding mode and allosteric regulation mechanism of HCV NS3/4A protein by using computational methods. (jove.com)
  • They include: apo state of HCV NS3/4A protein, HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with an allosteric inhibitor and the truncated form of the above two systems. (jove.com)
  • The molecular dynamics simulation results indicate HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with the allosteric inhibitor 4VA adopts a closed conformation (inactive state), while the truncated apo protein adopts an open conformation (active state). (jove.com)
  • cells
  • Thus, HCV binding to natural killer (NK) cells could result in the cross-linking of CD81. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To explore this possibility, we investigated whether cross-linking CD81 on NK cells could alter NK cell function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we show that CD81 cross-linking via immobilized E2 or mAbs specific for CD81 inhibits not only non major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells but also interferon (IFN)-γ production by NK cells after exposure to interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-15, or CD16 cross-linking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results show that CD81 cross-linking mediates completely different signals in NK cells versus T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we have investigated whether cross-linking CD81 on NK cells can alter NK cell function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The green fluorescent protein is a commonly used marker for studying lentiviruses in living cells. (jove.com)
  • andsubsequently administering at least once a second composition comprising a viral vector comprising a nucleic acid encoding said at least one epitope of said first composition, whereby the nucleic acid of said second composition is expressed in one or more cells of the subject and at least part of the protein of said first composition is produced. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • host
  • To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we will analyze the host and viral factors taking part in the development of MCII in order to give a general outlook of the molecular mechanisms implicated. (mdpi.com)
  • virus
  • citation needed] Scientists can study the immune system's response to the virus in horses and study if vaccine candidates have any effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of a virus is made possible by the availability of culture systems in which the viral lifecycle can be realized. (hindawi.com)
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? (mdpi.com)
  • function
  • This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. (jove.com)
  • various
  • Cell-free culture supernatants, protein lysates and total RNA were harvested at various time points post-transfection to assess HCV growth. (jove.com)
  • patients
  • In particular, about 60% of HCV-infected patients present cold-precipitable (cryoprecipitable) and noncryoprecipitable immune complexes that could be associated with the clinical onset of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • important
  • Further residue interaction network analysis suggests the communication of the domain-domain interface play an important role in the transition from closed to open conformation of HCV NS3/4A protein. (jove.com)
  • production is important for effective anti-viral immunity. (jove.com)
  • present
  • The methods utilize one or more administrations of HCV protein compositions, followed by one or more administrations of a viral vector comprising a nucleic acid encoding a least one HCV epitope that is present in the first composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)