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  • structures
  • Therefore, understanding how hair-cell synapses form and function is critical to understanding how to reform these structures after hearing loss. (nih.gov)
  • b) Anatomical structures of the hair bundle corresponding to the microscopic image in (a). (egms.de)
  • It has been hypothesized that the attachment of ion channels to cytoplasmic and extracellular structures is responsible for distinguishing mechanical strain on the cell membrane, and that cell curvature may not directly gate these ion channels alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Auditory sensory progenitors exit the cell cycle at embryonic day (E)13.5-E14.5 in a gradient from apex to base, opposite their differentiation gradient from base to apex. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that Gfi1 mRNA is expressed in many areas that give rise to neuronal cells during embryonic development in mouse, and that Gfi1 protein has a more restricted expression pattern. (biologists.org)
  • During embryonic development, Notch-mediated lateral inhibition ensures that the correct number of hair cells and supporting cells are generated from a common pool of postmitotic pro-sensory progenitors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • deficits
  • This essential role of CIB2 in mechanotransduction and cell survival that, we show, is restricted to the cochlea, probably accounts for the presence in CIB2 -/- mice and CIB2 patients, unlike in Usher syndrome, of isolated hearing loss without balance and vision deficits. (nih.gov)
  • 3) Thresholds have been shown to be a sensitive measure of vestibular function that has been shown to identify specific peripheral vestibular deficits ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • TMC1 has been located in the post-natal mouse cochlea, and knockouts for TMC1 and TMC2 result in both auditory and vestibular deficits (hearing loss and balance issues) indicating TMC1 is a molecular part of auditory transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Additionally, recessive mutations of the gene result in both a loss of TMC1 function as well as profound deafness indicating TMC1 function is necessary for the processing of auditory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visual signals sent to the brain about the body's position in relation to its surroundings are processed by the brain and compared to information from the vestibular, visual and skeletal systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptive
  • D-hair receptors have large receptive fields and very low mechanical thresholds, and have been shown to be the most sensitive of known cutaneous mechanoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each neuromast consists of receptive hair cells whose tips are covered by a flexible and jellylike cupula. (wikipedia.org)
  • bundle
  • We observe a transition from chaos to order as increasingly stronger stimulus is applied to the hair bundle. (aps.org)
  • This transition is accompanied by an increase in information transmission from the stimulus to the hair bundle, indicative of signal detection. (aps.org)
  • In hair cells, synaptic responses are shaped by distinct sources of Ca2+: mechanosensitive Ca2+ -permeable channels in the hair bundle, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at the synapse, and Ca2+ storage and release from mitochondria and ER. (nih.gov)
  • Genetically encoded indicators localized to the ribbon synapse (A), hair bundle (B), and synaptic vesicles (green) and ribbon synapses (red) (C). (nih.gov)
  • Jiang, T, Kindt KS*, Wu, D*. Transcription factor Emx2 controls stereociliary bundle orientation of sensory hair cells . (nih.gov)
  • The fluid jet was positioned ∼50 μm from the hair bundle. (jneurosci.org)
  • a) Hair bundle of an isolated bullfrog hair cell stained with phalloidin in order to detect F-actin. (egms.de)
  • c) Key molecules of the hair bundle. (egms.de)
  • They also are involved in the force transmission across the bundle and the maintenance of the hair bundle structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the macula are hair cells, each having a hair bundle on the apical aspect. (wikipedia.org)
  • saccular hair cells
  • As in frog saccular hair cells, adaptation shifted the current-deflection ( I ( X )) relation along the deflection axis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Experiments in frog saccular hair cells have suggested an adaptation mechanism in which an active motor element in the stereocilium moves the upper attachment point of the tip link to adjust its tension (Fig. 1 B ) ( Howard and Hudspeth, 1987 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This is due to an increase in the density of saccular hair cells, partly resulting from reduced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • postnatal
  • In these first studies of the role of the Rb protein in the ears of postnatal mice, we have confirmed that - under the right conditions - mature hair cells can go through the cell cycle and produce new, functioning hair cells. (medindia.net)
  • ears
  • Rinne's test involves Rinne's Right Test and Rinne's Left Test since auditory acuity is equal in both ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanotransduction
  • CIB2, defective in isolated deafness, is key for auditory hair cell mechanotransduction and survival. (nih.gov)
  • Through mechanotransduction, hair cells detect movement in their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinocilium is not required for mechanotransduction and, like the kinociliary links, is no longer detectable in mature hair cells. (egms.de)
  • However, new research suggests that TMC1 interacts with Tip link proteins protocadherin 15 and cadherin 23 indicating that TMC1, along with TMC2, are necessary proteins for hair cell mechanotransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • The quickness of the hair cell response may also be due to the fact that it can increase the amount of neurotransmitter release in response to a change as little as 100 μV in membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deflection towards the longest hair results in depolarization of the hair cell, increased neurotransmitter release at the excitatory afferent synapse, and a higher rate of signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deflection towards the shorter hair has the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing the hair cell and producing a decreased rate of neurotransmitter release. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Unlike the typical dendrite, the peripheral process generates and conducts action potentials, which then "jump" across the cell body (or soma) and continue to propagate along the central axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • apical
  • Myosin VI (MYO6) is found largely on the apical side of the hair cells in the region of the cuticular plate. (egms.de)
  • deflection
  • Varying in magnitude with the strength of the stimulus, shearing movement and deflection of the hairs is produced, either toward the longest hair or away from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, TMC1 and TMC2 may be two pore-forming subunits of the channel that responds to tip link deflection in hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomical
  • This includes analyses of cell lineages and cell dispersals across anatomical boundaries (such as sensory versus nonsensory territories). (harvard.edu)
  • Such anatomical differences could contribute to behavioral differences, but studies utilizing standard clinical vestibular assays ( 3 - 8 ) have found no significant sex effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • bundles
  • The amplification may be powered by the movement of their hair bundles, or by an electrically driven motility of their cell bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is affected by the closing mechanism of the mechanical sensory ion channels at the tips of the hair bundles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hair bundles were deflected by a fluid jet or a stiff probe. (jneurosci.org)
  • canal
  • The horizontal plane is defined by Reid's line, the line connecting the lower rim of the orbita and the center of the external auditory canal. (wikibooks.org)