• secretion
  • Fast neuromodulatory effects of 17-β-estradiol (E2) on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) have been reported in many cell types, but little is known about its direct effects on vesicular neurotransmitter secretion (exocytosis). (springer.com)
  • Kim YJ, Hur EM, Park TJ, Kim KT (2000) Nongenomic inhibition of catecholamine secretion by 17betaestradiol in PC12 cells. (springer.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that in Xenopus neurons ACh secretion is mediated by vesicles which recycle locally within the axon. (rupress.org)
  • The increased accumulation of partially empty secretory vesicles following secretion, observed in electron micrographs are the most compelling evidence in favor of the kiss-and-run model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfonylurea drugs (SUs), widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes through stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, have also been shown to specifically activate Epac2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In pancreatic β-cells, cAMP signaling, which can be activated by various extracellular stimuli including hormonal and neural inputs primarily through Gs-coupled receptors, is of importance for normal regulation of insulin secretion to maintain glucose homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • In mature neurons, synaptic vesicles continuously recycle within the presynaptic nerve terminal. (rupress.org)
  • have been observed along the axonal shaft in naive (free of contact with other cells) neurons in culture. (rupress.org)
  • Although the metabolism of APP in cultured cells has been extensively investigated, the fate of APP synthesized in terminally differentiated neurons in the adult CNS is primarily unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together with the demonstration that endocytosis plays an important role in Aβ formation in cultured cells ( Koo and Squazzo, 1994 ), the in vivo data suggest that APP processing might occur in the presynaptic terminals of differentiated central neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results are evidence that signaling endosomes, with the characteristics of early endosomes, convey NGF signals from the target of nociceptive neurons to their cell bodies. (jove.com)
  • Antibiotic & Antimycotic Their embryological origin with neuroblastic cells means they can easily differentiate into neuron-like cells even though they are not considered adult neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuron-like means they share properties similar to neurons, in this case it is referring to releasing neurotransmitter by vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycine transporter GlyT2 controls the dynamics of synaptic vesicle refilling in inhibitory spinal cord neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • The expression of VMAT1 in healthy endocrine cells was compared to VMAT1 expression in infants with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and adults with pancreatic endocrine tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH), they found VMAT1 and VMAT2 were located in mutually exclusive cell types, and that in insulinomas VMAT2 activity disappeared, suggesting that if only VMAT1 activity is present in the endocrine system, this type of cancer is likely. (wikipedia.org)
  • adrenal
  • This was discovered via studying rat adrenal medulla cells (PC12 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural crest that has a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell model because of its extreme versatility for pharmacological manipulation, ease of culture, and the large amount of information on their proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic & Antimycotic Cell culture Adrenal medulla Cellular differentiation Pheochromocytoma Greene LA, Tischler AS (July 1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • pheochromocytoma
  • Chen TK, Luo G, Ewing AG (1994) Amperometric monitoring of stimulated catecholamine release from rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells at the zeptomole level. (springer.com)
  • 1998
  • Bennett DL, Bootman MD, Berridge MJ, Cheek TR (1998) Ca 2+ entry into PC12 cells initiated by ryanodine receptors or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. (springer.com)
  • collapses
  • The pore can either dilate fully so that the vesicle collapses completely, or close rapidly to generate 'kiss-and-run' (reversible) fusion. (tcdb.org)
  • Rab3a
  • Moreover, we report that assembly of kinesin-1C and APP in this vesicle type requires Rab3A GTPase activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, our data indicate that Rab3A GTPase activity is required for assembly of kinesin-1C, APP, and ADAM10 in a FAT vesicle of unique biochemical composition. (jneurosci.org)
  • The increase in phosphorylation was critically dependent on external Ca 2+ and on the presence of Rab3a, a small GTPase that recruits rabphilin to synaptic vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • neuronal
  • Although an extensive study to elucidate the role of PI(4,5)P2 and PIP5 kinase has been focused on many cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking, cell movement and cytoskeletal assembly, a very few studies have been reported for their role in neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Colliver TL, Hess EJ, Pothos EN, Sulzer D, Ewing AG (2000) Quantitative and statistical analysis of the shape of amperometric spikes recorded from two populations of cells. (springer.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • The main difference between these two models arises from the placement of TMDs II and IV in the vesicle lumen or the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • fusion
  • By recording fusion pore kinetics during single vesicle fusion, He et al. (tcdb.org)
  • Kiss-and-run fusion is a type of synaptic vesicle release where the vesicle opens and closes transiently. (wikipedia.org)
  • All studies have suggested that there are two main advantages kiss-and-run fusion has over full fusion: 1) kiss-and-run enables more efficient vesicle recycling and 2) kiss-and-run can limit how much neurotransmitter is released due to a smaller fusion pore and a shorter time during which neurotransmitters can actually be released. (wikipedia.org)