• hypoxia
  • High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and sometimes fatal form of altitude sickness that results from capillary fluid leakage due to the effects of hypoxia on the mitochondria -rich endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-6 Such increased lipolytic activity has mainly been studied by measuring free fatty acids and membrane phospholipids extracted from brain homogenate samples in animal models of ischaemia, hypoxia, hypoglycaemia, and epilepsy. (bmj.com)
  • trauma
  • Mechanisms contributing to blood-brain barrier dysfunction include physical disruption by arterial hypertension or trauma, and tumor-facilitated release of vasoactive and endothelial destructive compounds (e.g. arachidonic acid , excitatory neurotransmitters, eicosanoids , bradykinin , histamine , and free radicals ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasogenic edema, as shown on this tissue stain of a trauma case (arrows), is the result of plasma leakage through the blood vessel walls. (mussenhealth.us)
  • acute
  • 22 Although S-100B expression in the latter conditions was far below the activity measured after acute central nervous system disorders, the brain specificity of S-100B release was questioned by a number of investigators. (ahajournals.org)
  • interstitial
  • In vasogenic and interstitial edema, electron microscopy has shown an increase of interstitial spaces in white matter amounting to 1000 nm, versus 60 nm in normal white matter .These enlarged extracellular spaces, with free water, may be the dominant source for the total brain water signal, resulting in increased ADC. (mussenhealth.us)
  • Simultaneous determination of glycerol in arterial plasma samples showed that the changes in brain interstitial glycerol could not be attributed to systemic changes and an injured blood brain barrier. (bmj.com)
  • lesions
  • a T2-weighted image shows central necrosis as slightly hyperintense (arrow) and peripheral vasogenic edema as very hyperintense in the left hemisphere (arrowheads).Multiple lesions of toxoplasmosis are also seen in the right occipital and left periventricular areas.b DW image reveals vasogenic edema as hypointense, while the central necrosis shows hyperintensity on DW image. (mussenhealth.us)
  • GFAP was found to be a more sensitive marker of brain damage in patients with smaller lacunar lesions or minor strokes. (ahajournals.org)
  • glial
  • It can occur in neurons, glial cells, axons (axonal swelling) and myelin sheaths (intramyelinic edema). (mussenhealth.us)
  • Consequently, there was a demand for neurobiochemical markers highly specific for astroglial brain tissue, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was considered a high-priority candidate. (ahajournals.org)
  • clinical
  • Because of commercial availability and detectability in peripheral blood, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein S-100B were the biochemical markers of brain damage studied most often in clinical settings. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent advances in diagnostic procedures, particularly neuroimaging, have enabled us to establish a clinical diagnosis of CAA without brain biopsies. (j-stroke.org)
  • extracellular space
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) or the blood- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier may break down, allowing fluid to accumulate in the brain's extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in extracellular space osmolarity will result in a marked increase in extracellular water, i.e. vasogenic edema (hematoxylin-eosin stain, original magnification x200). (mussenhealth.us)
  • cause
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water , and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast travel to high altitude without proper acclimatization can cause high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Activities, such as sustained coughing or straining during defecation, can cause temporary elevations in thoracic pressure. (slideplayer.com)
  • CAA was described as a cause of normotensive cerebral hemorrhage in older individuals or also described in studies focusing on its close association with Alzheimer's disease (AD). (j-stroke.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Brain- none CSF- redistributed into compliant paraspinal CSF space Blood- venous blood forced into internal jugular veins When compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises more rapidly Eventually, the compensatory mechanisms are exhausted and a sharp rise in ICP will occur. (slideplayer.com)
  • Recent findings have directly linked major brain development, mechanisms, and diseases to the mechanical response of the brain both at the cellular and tissue levels. (springer.com)
  • cardiac arrest
  • There is, therefore, a clear need for therapies, which restore and protect brain function after cardiac arrest. (blogspot.com)
  • however, when it comes to cerebral resuscitation, i.e., restoring and protecting brain function after cardiac arrest, our possibilities are still limited. (blogspot.com)
  • cellular
  • Cytotoxic or cellular edema is hyperintense on DW images and associated with decreased ADC. (mussenhealth.us)
  • Further, most brain pathologies depend on many different factors and their physical manifestation may be conveniently ignored by focusing on genetics and cellular function as the primary driver. (springer.com)
  • breakdown
  • Combined treatment yields no additional benefit compared with single treatment, probably because of early blood-brain barrier breakdown. (ahajournals.org)
  • disorders
  • During the past decade the analysis of neurobiochemical markers of brain damage has attracted increasing attention in a variety of central nervous system disorders. (ahajournals.org)
  • changes
  • Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial vault , gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • An increase in the volume of any of the contents within the intracranial vault must be met with a decrease in the volume of another or the intracranial pressure will increase V (vault)= V (CSF) + V (brain) + V (blood) + V (other) First described over 200 years ago. (slideplayer.com)
  • The femoral artery and vein were catheterized to monitor blood pressure and blood gases and to administer contrast agent. (ahajournals.org)
  • white matter
  • These images are more sensitive than conventional MRI to determine the extent of edema in both gray and white matter. (mussenhealth.us)
  • 1993) Discrimination between different types of white matter edema with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. (mussenhealth.us)
  • fluid
  • It is thought to result from direct transmission of pressure to cerebral capillaries with transudation of fluid from the capillaries into the extravascular compartment . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first part of this manuscript, we present the current understanding of the fundamental mechanics of the brain by reviewing its solid, fluid, electrochemical, and electromechanical components. (springer.com)
  • biochemical
  • Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. (springer.com)
  • From this perspective, the problem consists of connecting the biochemical and electrophysiological behavior of brain cells with the overall behavior of networks of connected cells. (springer.com)
  • types
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) involves cerebrovascular amyloid deposition and is classified into several types according to the amyloid protein involved. (j-stroke.org)
  • concepts
  • Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. (springer.com)