• Gastric
  • VIP has an effect on several tissues: With respect to the digestive system, VIP seems to induce smooth muscle relaxation (lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, gallbladder), stimulate secretion of water into pancreatic juice and bile, and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric sodium loading results in an increase in the portal venous concentration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and down-regulation of both the intrahepatic and circulating renin-angiotensin systems. (clinsci.org)
  • K cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide, an incretin, which also promotes triglyceride storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrin releasi
  • The vagus nerve (CN X) also releases gastrin releasing peptide onto G cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G cells secrete gastrin, post-ganglionic fibers of the vagus nerve can release gastrin-releasing peptide during parasympathetic stimulation to stimulate secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • amide
  • Galanin was first identified from porcine intestinal extracts in 1978 by Professor Viktor Mutt and colleagues at the Karolinska Institute, Sweden using a chemical assay technique that detects peptides according to its C-terminal alanine amide structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • This demonstrates that it is essential to study the effects of galanin and other regulatory peptides in their autologous species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murine
  • We demonstrate here that administration of a hybrid peptide antagonist that blocks VIP signaling enhances CD8 T cell responses in a murine model of AML. (jimmunol.org)
  • Phase
  • The intestinal phase: The remaining 10% of acid is secreted when chyme enters the small intestine, and is stimulated by small intestine distension and by amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Adaptive antiviral cellular immunity was increased in mCMV-infected VIP-KO mice compared with WT mice, with more Th1/Tc1-polarized T cells, fewer IL-10 + T cells, and more mCMV-M45 epitope peptide MHC class I tetramer + CD8 + T cells (tetramer + CD8 T cells). (jimmunol.org)
  • mCMV-immune VIP-KO mice had enhanced ability to clear mCMV peptide-pulsed target cells in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intestinal enteroendocrine cells are not clustered together but spread as single cells throughout the intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • L cells secrete glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin, pancreatic peptide YY3-36, oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Rates tend to be higher in the developed world with some proposing this to be the result of less exposure to intestinal infections, or a Western diet and lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • Produced by using either proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin or chemicals such as cyanogen bromide to cut proteins at a relatively small number of particular sites, the peptide fragments are then separated by chromatographic or electrophoretic procedures. (thefreedictionary.com)