• Cytotoxic
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • This approach advocates the use of initial monotherapy to reach the desired blood pressure, and the subsequent use of additional drugs with complementary modes of action, until the target BP is achieved. (stanford.edu)
  • In a large series of patients who developed intracranial hematomas requiring emergent decompression, more than half had lucid intervals and were able to make conversation between the time of their injury and subsequent deterioration. (medscape.com)
  • neurological
  • CBF augmentation using hypertensive agents and agents that dilute and expand the plasma volume are already used to reverse ischemic neurological deficits. (ahajournals.org)
  • The "golden period" from blockage of a vessel of the brain by thrombus or embolus with onset of neurological dysfunction is 3 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • Additional HBO treatments are based on the following permutations: (1) If CT scan reveals intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): (a) resume HBO if neurological improvement has occurred with first treatment, or (b) stop HBO if neurologically unchanged or deterioration is observed. (ahajournals.org)
  • causes
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertension
  • Adding to this, Combination Therapy in Hypertension will cover current control rates of blood pressure worldwide, the benefits of monotherapy and combination therapy, examine the effectiveness, risk of adverse effects, compliance, and cost of the available therapies and will also include information on relevant outcome studies. (stanford.edu)
  • metabolism
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water , and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Brain- none CSF- redistributed into compliant paraspinal CSF space Blood- venous blood forced into internal jugular veins When compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises more rapidly Eventually, the compensatory mechanisms are exhausted and a sharp rise in ICP will occur. (slideplayer.com)
  • patients
  • Many of these patients harbor intracranial mass lesions. (medscape.com)
  • We report two patients with peripheral SCA aneurysms who presented with cerebellar ischemic events without SAH. (ajnr.org)
  • Although we agree that the pressure at which the patients were treated (2.5 atm absolute [ATA]) is appropriate, we feel that several of their other methodologies and interpretations require comments. (ahajournals.org)
  • arachnoid
  • A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • injuries
  • Closed injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (merckmanuals.com)
  • cell
  • The largest and main portion of the brain, the cerebrum is made up of an outer coating, or cerebral cortex , consisting of gray matter , several cell layers deep, covering the cerebral hemispheres . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 The diffuse nature of SAH and action of red cell breakdown products has widespread effects on the cerebral vasculature. (ahajournals.org)
  • increase
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
  • 16,17 A 20% to 50% increase in CBF in ischemic regions was seen without compromising blood flow to other areas. (ahajournals.org)
  • occur
  • Medications such as labetalol may be required to lower the blood pressure until repair can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraocular hemorrhage (bleeding into the eyeball) may occur in response to the raised pressure: subhyaloid hemorrhage (bleeding under the hyaloid membrane, which envelops the vitreous body of the eye) and vitreous hemorrhage may be visible on fundoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • 11,12 Other agents include rheological fluids such as hypertonic saline (HS), which has been shown to have similar effects to mannitol in various intracranial pathologies, but the duration of its action is longer. (ahajournals.org)
  • changes
  • Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial vault , gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed. (wikipedia.org)