• protein
  • administering to a subject in need of such treatment a rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject, provided that the rho GTPase function inhibitor is not an agent selected from the group consisting of a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, a protein kinase C inhibitor, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and cyclosporin. (google.ca)
  • Pubmed ID: 11823797 Many transcription factors in human cells have functional orthologues in yeast, and a common experimental theme has been to define the function of the yeast protein and then test whether the mammalian version behaves similarly. (jove.com)
  • and myosin, another type of motor protein, contributes to essential movement in muscles and other activities with the energy from ATP. (news-medical.net)
  • In contrast, wild-type ErbB2 augmented pre-rRNA level, protein production, and cell size/cell growth, but not by an ErbB2 mutant that is defective in nuclear translocation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, ErbB2 associated with rDNA, RNA Pol I, and β-actin, suggesting how it could stimulate rRNA production, protein synthesis, and increased cell size and cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • rRNA production by RNA polymerase-I (RNA Pol I), the key component of ribosome biogenesis, is the rate-limiting step for translation/protein synthesis and cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Augmented expression of rRNA is potentially accompanied by the increased protein synthesis and thereby cell growth, which can hasten tumor development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, it has been reported that rRNA and protein synthesis are elevated in wide varieties of human cancers ( 1-5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lamins are divided into A and B types based on their expression patterns and protein structure. (rupress.org)
  • Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. (mdpi.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow migrate into the thymus, where they undergo VDJ recombination of their beta-chain TCR DNA to form a developmental form of the TCR protein, known as pre-TCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of T cells express alpha-beta TCRs (αβ T cells), but some T cells in epithelial tissues (like the gut) express gamma-delta TCRs (γδ T cells), which recognize non-protein antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until 1986 that an analysis of lamin cDNA clones across a variety of species supported that lamins belong to the intermediate filament (IF) protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein methylation is one type of post-translational modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The presence of lamin polypeptides is an exclusive property of Metazoan organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lamins are present in all members of the kingdom Animalia (Metazoa), but are not found in unicellular organisms, plants, or fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lamins of higher level organisms, such as vertebrates, continue to assemble into paracrystalline arrays. (wikipedia.org)
  • CaaX
  • Most lamins contain a CaaX motif at their C-termini, which is the target of a series of posttranslational modifications, including isoprenylation, proteolytic trimming and carboxyl methylation. (biologists.org)
  • All B-type lamins and lamin A (but not lamin C) have a CAAX box at their C terminus that is subjected to several posttranslational modifications. (rupress.org)
  • A CaaX motif is found within the unique residues in prelamin A. Due to the presence of the CaaX motif, prelamin A undergoes a series of posttranslational modifications to become mature lamin A. These steps include farnesylation of the carboxyl-terminal cysteine, endoproteolytic release of the terminal amino acids, carboxymethalation of the accessible farnesylcysteine, and removal of the final fifteen residues by a zinc metalloprotease. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • The nuclear lamina is assembled by interactions of two lamin polypeptides in which the α-helical regions are wound around each other to form a two stranded α-helical coiled-coil structure, followed by a head-to-tail association of the multiple dimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of cytotoxic T cells is dependent on several simultaneous interactions between molecules expressed on the surface of the T cell and molecules on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell (APC). (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • During mitosis, the chromosomes, which have already duplicated, condense and attach to spindle fibers that pull one copy of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Producing three or more daughter cells instead of normal two is a mitotic error called tripolar mitosis or multipolar mitosis (direct cell triplication / multiplication). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most animal cells undergo a shape change, known as mitotic cell rounding, to adopt a near spherical morphology at the start of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit, and cat cornea cells in 1873 and described for the first time by the Polish histologist Wacław Mayzel in 1875. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • coenocytic (a type of multinucleate condition) cells undergo mitosis without cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and finally divides (M) before restarting the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • Here, we demonstrate that when an adherent cell is detached from its substratum, the nucleus undergoes a large volumetric reduction accompanied by a morphological transition from an almost smooth to a heavily folded surface. (biologists.org)
  • mutant
  • In a population of cells, mutant cells will increase or decrease in frequency according to the effects of the mutation on the ability of the cell to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functionally
  • T cells with functionally stable TCRs express both the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors and are therefore termed "double-positive" (DP) T cells (CD4+CD8+). (wikipedia.org)
  • tail domain
  • Lamins contain three domains: an N-terminal head, a central rod and a C-terminal tail domain possessing an Ig-fold structural motif. (jove.com)
  • Lamin A and B can also bind core histones through a sequence element in their tail domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • laminopathies
  • Current research is being performed to develop treatment methods for the aforementioned laminopathies and to investigate the role lamins play in the aging process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zmpste24
  • right) The processing of pre-lamin A in the most common HGPS mutation, which deletes amino acids 607-656 (progerin/LAΔ50), including the second cleavage site of lamin A by Zmpste24. (rupress.org)
  • defects
  • However, mice deficient in B-type lamins were born with improperly developed organs-including defects in the lungs, diaphragms, and brains-and were unable to breathe. (bioquicknews.com)
  • see p. 27 of this issue), show that somatic stem cells are misregulated in premature aging, explaining some of the pathological defects observed in these situations. (rupress.org)
  • cell's
  • Most important among these is a cell nucleus, an organelle that houses the cell's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell's ability to dynamically form microfilaments provides the scaffolding that allows it to rapidly remodel itself in response to its environment or to the organism's internal signals, for example, to increase cell membrane absorption or increase cell adhesion in order to form cell tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Furthermore, lamin C contains six unique amino-acid residues while prelamin A contains ninety-eight residues not found in the other isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type II enzyme catalyzes formation of symmetric dimethylarginine with one methyl group on each nitrogens /symmetric N G,N' G-dimethylarginine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • We find that, depending on the cellular environment and cell adhesion to the substrate, the nuclear volume can change by 50% in a variety of cells. (biologists.org)
  • However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro, grooved surfaces encouraged E cell adhesion and oriented clusters of E cells along their long axis. (ubc.ca)
  • motility
  • They also help cells significantly with motility. (news-medical.net)
  • Alterations in nuclear morphology are closely associated with essential cell functions, such as cell motility and polarization, and correlate with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and progeria. (biologists.org)
  • posttranslational
  • The very first modification involving farnesylation of prelamin A is crucial to the development of mature lamin A. Isoform lamin C does not undergo posttranslational modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling and being self-sustaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA of a prokaryotic cell consists of a single chromosome that is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prokaryotic cell has three architectural regions: Enclosing the cell is the cell envelope - generally consisting of a plasma membrane covered by a cell wall which, for some bacteria, may be further covered by a third layer called a capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a different process called binary fission. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • By alternative splicing, at least seven different polypeptides (splice variants) are obtained, some of which are specific for germ cells and play an important role in the chromatin reorganisation during meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important exceptions include the gametes - sperm and egg cells - which are produced by meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular functions
  • Linking the disease phenotypes to cellular functions of lamins has been a major challenge. (jove.com)
  • It can be present as either a free monomer called G-actin (globular) or as part of a linear polymer microfilament called F-actin (filamentous), both of which are essential for such important cellular functions as the mobility and contraction of cells during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • Inhibition of the second or third steps results in toxic lamin A accumulation, causing HGPS, restricted dermopathy (RD), or mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD). (rupress.org)
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • As these protofilaments aggregate, they form lamin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike lamin C, Lamin A is generated in a precursor form called prelamin A. Prelamin A and lamin C differ in structure only at the carboxyl-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • All plywoods bind resin and wood fibre sheets (cellulose cells are long, strong and thin) to form a composite material. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • It has been shown that lamin polypeptides have an affinity for binding chromatin through their α-helical (rod like) domains at specific DNA sequences called matrix attachment regions (MAR). A MAR has a length of approximately 300-1000 bp and has a high A/T content. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • New research from a multi-institutional team led by the Carnegie Institution for Science's Dr. Yixian Zheng indicates that, counter to expectations, these B-type lamins are not necessary for stem cells to renew and develop, but are necessary for proper organ development. (bioquicknews.com)
  • But the research team--including Carnegie's Drs. Youngjo Kim, Katie McDole, and Chen-Ming Fan--took a hard look at the functions of B-type lamins in embryonic stem cells and in live mice. (bioquicknews.com)
  • mammalian cells
  • Pubmed ID: 14701733 In primary mammalian cells, DNA replication initiates in a small number of perinucleolar, lamin A/C-associated foci. (jove.com)
  • In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is approximately 6 micrometres (µm), which occupies about 10% of the total cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • It also enables the separation of daughter chromosomes to opposite poles during cell division. (news-medical.net)
  • Microtubules project from opposite ends of the cell, attach to the centromeres, and align the chromosomes centrally within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell elongates, corresponding daughter chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell and condense maximally in late anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • 12. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering at least one different rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.ca)
  • Our works seems to indicate that while B-type lamins are not part of the early developmental tissue-building process, they are important in facilitating the integration of different cell types into the complex architectures of various developing organs," Dr. Kim, the lead author, said. (bioquicknews.com)
  • 1 On the other hand, the nucleus of cells in mechanically active tissue such as muscle requires sufficient structural support to withstand repetitive mechanical stress. (jove.com)
  • In the fifth study, the ultrastructural observations of the mineralized tissue formed on the micromachined surfaces, identified osteocyte-like cells and in some areas revealed close juxtapositioning of collagen and minerals to titanium without an intervening amorphous layer. (ubc.ca)
  • development
  • It then facilitates the development of the mitotic spindle to prepare for the separation of the daughter cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The lamins were thought to use their DNA-binding suppression abilities to tell a cell which type of development pathway to follow. (bioquicknews.com)
  • This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults. (wikipedia.org)