• VRSA
  • Herein, we review selected mechanistic aspects of resistance in VISA and summarize biochemical studies on cell wall synthesis in a VRSA strain. (jci.org)
  • Finally, we recapitulate a model that integrates common mechanistic features of VRSA and VISA strains and is consistent with the mode of action of vancomycin. (jci.org)
  • peptidoglycan
  • The peptidoglycan precursors of each strain were arrested in vancomycin (20 ug/ml) to block transpeptidation and transglycosylation steps of peptidoglycan synthesis and bacitracin (100 ug/ml) was used to amplify precursors at the transglycosylation step. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Resistance is due to a chromosomal gene, vanC, which encodes for a terminal D-alanine-D-serine instead of the usual D-alanine-D-alanine in cell wall peptidoglycan precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • intravenous
  • Researchers are keeping a watchful eye to Vancomycin resistance given that this powerful intravenous delivered drug has long been considered the antibiotic of last resort. (ondineblog.com)
  • It often requires treatment with intravenous or intrathecal vancomycin, yet it is debatable as to whether its use has any impact on outcome: the removal of any neurological devices is a crucial part of the management of these infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • in particular, in cases of relapse or where the infection is unresponsive to metronidazole treatment (for this indication, vancomycin is given orally, rather than by its typical intravenous route) For treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms in patients with serious allergies to beta-lactam antimicrobials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vancomycin has long been considered a drug of last resort, due to its efficiency in treating multiple drug-resistant infectious agents and the requirement for intravenous administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergence
  • 1 The rapid emergence of VRE in the United States has been attributed to the intensive clinical use of vancomycin in both parenteral and oral forms in that country, 2 on a background of high level usage of cephalosporins which promote enterococcal superinfection. (health.gov.au)
  • aminoglycosides
  • Later trials using purer forms of vancomycin found nephrotoxicity is an infrequent adverse effect (0.1% to 1% of patients), but this is accentuated in the presence of aminoglycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • This first complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid carrying two copies of fosB in VRE suggests that the fosB gene can transfer to multiple loci of plasmids by the IS L3 family transposase TnpA, possibly in the form of circular intermediates, leading to the dissemination of high fosfomycin resistance in VRE. (frontiersin.org)
  • The vanY gene was necessary for synthesis of the vancomycin-inducible D,D-carboxypeptidase EC activity previously proposed to be responsible for glycopeptide resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • By allowing rapid and reliable detection of antibiotic resistances, Amplidiag CarbaR+VRE supports decisions to manage efficiently epidemiological and infection control measures and improve patient care. (mobidiag.com)
  • strain
  • This strain was named so because of its unique resistance to novobiocin and its failure to produce acid aerobically from trehalose and glucosamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the possibility of potential severe or fatal consequences of resistant strains, initial treatment often includes concomitant administration of multiple antimicrobial agents that are not known to show cross-resistance, so as to reduce the possibility of a resistant strain remaining inadequately treated by a single agent during the evaluation of drug response. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and the peptide, likely due to steric hindrance. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial strains
  • This confirmed that the bacterial strains investigated were in fact resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin and this study shows that results obtained from conventional phenotypical screening methods reliably correlated with the genotypes classified using more advanced techniques such as PCR, southern blot/hybridisation and DNA sequencing. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • These bacterial strains present a thickening of the cell wall, which is believed to reduce the ability of vancomycin to diffuse into the division septum of the cell required for effective vancomycin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • agar
  • For inoculating peri-rectal/anal swabs or stool specimens directly, one method uses bile esculin azide agar plates containing 6 µg/ml of vancomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • The report of resistance reflects the special condition of these very few patients," says Gary Noskin, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois. (prnewswire.com)
  • Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) associated with IV vancomycin include: local pain, which may be severe, and thrombophlebitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • An important example of molecular recognition is the antibiotic vancomycin that selectively binds with the peptides with terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine in bacterial cells through five hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)