• receptors
  • The same compounds may also stimulate specific irritant receptors of the upper airways, resulting in reflex bronchoconstriction, which limits further exposure. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Receptors initiating this reflex are proprioceptive (afferent limb of reflex is IX and efferent limb is the pharyngeal plexus- IX and X). They are scattered over the base of the tongue, the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches, the tonsillar fossa, uvula and posterior pharyngeal wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholine then binds to M2 muscarinic receptors, causing the decrease in heart rate that is referred to as reflex bradycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The norepinephrine dialysis t4 signals were not therefore reflex in some treated agents just when rainy enzyme and antihypertensive were solely reduced may be that some weather is generique needed for modification high-dose medicines to lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide 20 25 return to several after patient catheters begin to regenerate. (duvalia.com)
  • Increased signals from this nerve causes contraction of the detrusor muscle. (teachmeanatomy.info)
  • Acetylcholine-Synthesizing T Cells Relay Neural Signals in a Vagus Nerve Circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophagus
  • The muscles of the esophagus will lose their tone and this can create a problem with food entering the esophagus if the vagus nerve is damaged. (blogspot.com)
  • This theory is supported by the strong tendency for infants to get hiccups, the component of the reflex that suppresses peristalsis in the esophagus, and the existence of hiccups only in milk-drinking mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • In the presence of high mean arterial pressure, the baroreceptor reflex produces a reflex bradycardia as a method of decreasing blood pressure by decreasing cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • In reflex bradycardia, blood pressure is reduced by decreasing cardiac output (CO) via a decrease in heart rate (HR). An increase in blood pressure can be caused by increased cardiac output, increased total peripheral resistance, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • facial
  • Only the motor nerve to the orbicularis muscle of the eyelids has an extraorbital course, coming from the superior branch of the facial nerve (VII). (nysora.com)
  • Oculocardiac
  • The Oculocardiac reflex, also known as Aschner phenomenon, Aschner reflex, or Aschner-Dagnini reflex, is a decrease in pulse rate associated with traction applied to extraocular muscles and/or compression of the eyeball. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory reflex
  • The inflammatory reflex is a neural circuit that regulates the immune response to injury and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling in the efferent arc of the inflammatory reflex, termed the "Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway," provides a regulatory check on the innate immune system response to invasion and injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • contraction
  • Once triggered, the reflex causes a strong contraction of the diaphragm followed about 0.25 second later by closure of the vocal cords, which results in the classic "hic" sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hypothesis has been questioned because of the existence of the afferent loop of the reflex, the fact that it does not explain the reason for glottic closure, and because the very short contraction of the hiccup is unlikely to have a significant strengthening effect on the slow-twitch muscles of respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • sympathetic nerve activity
  • Simultaneous recordings of microneurographically-recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and continuous and noninvasive blood pressure measurement has disclosed what is going on during the course of syncope progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Orthostatic syncope is caused by response failure or a lack of sympathetic nerve activity to the orthostatic challenge, followed by fluid shift and subsequent low cerebral perfusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • peripheral
  • Peripheral nervous system - consists of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, where they are not protected by the human vertebral column, skull and the protective blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • With one exception, the optic nerve, they are all considered part of the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Reflex bradycardia is a bradycardia (decrease in heart rate) in response to the baroreceptor reflex, one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms for preventing abnormal increases in blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • reflexes
  • Kidney failure Stroke Multiple sclerosis Meningitis Damage to the vagus nerve after surgery A recent explanation by Howes in 2012 suggests that hiccups may have evolved along with other reflexes developed in mammals that allow them to coordinate suckling milk and breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • corneal
  • The scleral portion of the globe is surrounded by Tenon's capsule, a fibroelastic layer stretching from the corneal limbus anteriorly to the optic nerve posteriorly. (nysora.com)
  • abducens
  • The trochlear nerve (IV) provides motor control to the superior obliquemuscles, the abducens nerve (VI) to the lateral rectus muscle, and the oculomotor nerve (III) to all other extraocular muscles. (nysora.com)
  • optic nerve
  • Posteriorly, they insert together at the apex on the tendineus anulus communis of Zinn, through which the optic nerve enters the orbit. (nysora.com)
  • activate
  • Many pathophysiological conditions have been described from the perspectives of (1) exaggerated sympathoexcitation and (2) failure to activate the sympathetic nerve. (frontiersin.org)
  • The two previous posts provide lots of information about the vagus nerve and how to activate the relaxation response. (turningpointnutrition.ca)
  • olfactory
  • While all three types of cells are integral to normal function of the epithelium, only OSN serve as receptor cells, i.e. responding to the chemicals and generating an action potential that travels down the olfactory nerve to reach the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance
  • Based on this it is possible to see the importance of this nerve in controlling the heart rate, digesting food, and regulating breathing. (blogspot.com)
  • activity
  • It may be possible to implant nerve stimulators to replace anti-inflammatory drugs that target cytokine activity (e.g. anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 antibodies). (wikipedia.org)
  • acetylcholine
  • The reflex can be blocked by intravenous injection of an anti-muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) antagonist, such as atropine or glycopyrrolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The action potentials arising in the vagus nerve are transmitted to the spleen, where a subset of specialized T cells is activated to secrete acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)