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  • safety
  • Some multidose TIV preparations contain thimerosal which is used as a preservative to prevent bacterial growth.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and FDA routinely monitor the safety of all vaccines licensed in the United States, including seasonal influenza vaccines. (blogspot.com)
  • antibodies
  • In the latest issue of JCI Insight, James Crowe of Vanderbilt University and colleagues describe the isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies with H3N2v-neutralizing capacity from human subjects given an H3N2v candidate vaccine. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • safety testing for batches of vaccine and anti-polio antibodies in test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurement developed by youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after application were important advancements necessary for vaccine success. (wikipedia.org)
  • some individuals are "non-responders" to certain vaccines, meaning that they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2015, a new class of highly potent, neutralizing antibodies that is effective against all four virus serotypes has been isolated, bringing hope for the development of a universal dengue vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemagglutinin is the major antigen of the virus against which neutralizing antibodies are produced, and influenza virus epidemics are associated with changes in its antigenic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • polio
  • 1- Vaccinating mothers with the injected polio vaccine led to a large increase in the risks of brain tumours and other cancers in the babies born to these pregnancies within the first year of life. (avn.org.au)
  • This includes those people who have never had the vaccine, those who didn't receive all doses of the vaccine, or those traveling to areas of the world where polio is still prevalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the war, he joined the U.S. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health Cancer Institute before joining the Salk team responsible for polio vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of the Jonas Salk research team, Youngner contributed in the development of polio vaccine, including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applying this method to a single kidney "could produce enough raw material for 6000 shots of polio vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, vaccination has become readily available, and is important to the prevention of some diseases like polio, rubella, and smallpox, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • Mercury is a potent neurotoxin and the amount that is in the vaccine - 25mcg per 0.5ml dose - is 200 times higher than the EPA safe limit for a foetus and almost 4 times higher than the safe limit for a 70kg adult. (avn.org.au)
  • Children 6 months through 8 years of age receiving the vaccine for the first time should get a second dose at least four weeks after the first one. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Children who only get one dose but need two doses can have reduced or no protection from a single dose of flu vaccine. (whattoexpect.com)
  • The locale is a developing country where financial restraints for the use of full-dose influenza vaccine would limit protection from an influenza pandemic threat, where N-Ss pose dangers and drawbacks in clinical use, and where Mantoux-type N-S ID injections are difficult to administer during mass campaigns. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Upon receiving dose 2 of vaccine, patients will be scheduled again to return to the study center 2, 7, and 28 days afterwards. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Upon returning to clinic on day 28 after dose 2 (day 56 after dose 1), the child will receive an unblinded, 'insurance', full-volume, 0.25 mL dose (#3) of influenza vaccine by NS IM, unless he or she is in the full-dose IM control group IM-NS-0.25, in which case a mock injection will be administered instead of a 3rd full dose beyond the usual 2-dose series. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The present study aims to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of one dose of a commercially available Surface Antigen, Inactivated Influenza Vaccine, Formulation 2006-2007, in non-elderly adult and elderly subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Typically, the dose can be decreased by a factor of 10 to 100, which will significantly cut the production cost of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As is the case in the United States and many other countries, the mercury-based additive thimerosal, previously thought necessary for multi-dose vials of vaccines such as the DPT shot, has largely been phased out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a response against a dengue virus serotype has been established, it is unlikely that vaccination against a second will be effective, implying that balanced responses against all four virus serotypes have to be established with the first vaccine dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • 4- The strains of influenza in the vaccine only match the circulating strain 11 % of the time. (avn.org.au)
  • and one strain from each of two influenza B lineages. (coursera.org)
  • The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors: the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than for others) the strain of vaccine (some vaccines are specific to, or at least most effective against, particular strains of the disease) whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among many developments, in February, 1988, fifteen experts and officials met in the UK to discuss adverse events reported after the administration of the vaccines which contained the attenuated Urabe mumps virus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to JCVI's minutes, the group "read a report of cases of mumps encephalitis which had been associated with MMR vaccine containing the Urabe strain of the mumps virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The JCVI "expressed concern" about giving triple vaccines to children with a personal or family history of convulsions, but considered it appropriate to proceed with a planned introduction of the MMR vaccine in October 1988, including two products containing Urabe strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since that time, government agencies have acted to prevent the importation of single vaccines containing this strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010 Andrew Wakefield was struck off by the General Medical Council for fabrication of results and failure to declare a financial interest in the importation of single strain vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there can be some cross-protection against related flu strains, the best protection would be from a vaccine specifically produced for any future pandemic flu virus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine manufacturing companies are being encouraged to increase capacity so that if a pandemic vaccine is needed, facilities will be available for rapid production of large amounts of a vaccine specific to a new pandemic strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, because a pandemic could result from an avian influenza strain that is lethal to chickens, it is impossible to ensure that eggs will be available to produce vaccine when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunization
  • Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine (NicVAX) or the hormone ghrelin in experiments to create an obesity vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until the 1880s vaccine/vaccination referred only to smallpox, but Louis Pasteur developed immunization methods for chicken cholera and anthrax in animals and for human rabies, and suggested that the terms vaccine/vaccination should be extended to cover the new procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization can be achieved in an active or passive manner: vaccination is an active form of immunization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are important considerations in the effectiveness of a vaccination program:[citation needed] careful modeling to anticipate the impact that an immunization campaign will have on the epidemiology of the disease in the medium to long term ongoing surveillance for the relevant disease following introduction of a new vaccine maintenance of high immunization rates, even when a disease has become rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Since the ISCOM-Matrix is simply mixed with the antigen post-manufacturing, it offers great production advantages and flexibility in vaccine design. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Thomas Francis, who originally described the idea, and cited by Richard Krause: "The antibody of childhood is largely a response to dominant antigen of the virus causing the first type A influenza infection of the lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • The NDV-H5Nx vaccine also has the potential to be administered to millions of birds at a time through water, said Dr. Jürgen Richt, Regents distinguished professor of veterinary medicine, director of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases at Kansas State University and one of the researchers involved in the discovery. (k-state.edu)
  • Mercola criticizes many aspects of standard medical practice, such as vaccination and what he views as overuse of prescription drugs and surgery to treat diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines have historically been the most effective means to fight and eradicate infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly diseases in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/influenza/Flu_vacc_manuf_tech_report.pdf" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely quoted date for the beginning of recorded history of avian influenza (initially known as fowl plague) was in 1878 when it was differentiated from other diseases that caused high mortality rates in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • development of a vaccine
  • Dr. Hause said demand is building for the development of a vaccine. (k-state.edu)
  • Julius S. Youngner (24 October 1920 - 27 April 2017) was an American Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at University of Pittsburgh responsible for advances necessary for development of a vaccine for poliomyelitis and the first intranasal equine influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • The increasing number of geriatric population and elevated prevalence of seasonal influenza outbreak contribute towards the positive growth of this industry's market.Patent holders are getting secured by the intellectual property rights and hence the market share is constantly increasing. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • pneumonia
  • Millions of people - particularly infants in underdeveloped countries-suffer from the serious life threatening illnesses of meningitis, pneumonia and influenza. (phys.org)
  • Increased infectious susceptibility in pregnancy may increase the likelihood of influenza complications such as pneumonia, particularly in the third trimester. (wikipedia.org)
  • varicella
  • Pre-conception counseling in the United States is recommended to include: Height and weight to calculate BMI Blood pressure Medical history Abdominal and pelvic examination Rubella screening Varicella screening Domestic violence screening Depression screening Testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia for women at high risk for STDs It is recommended that all pregnant women receive influenza vaccination during flu season. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • Seasonal influenza is a grave public health issue which causes serious illness and death in densely populated regions. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • Reasons that researchers found for not getting the vaccine included perceptions that the illness is manageable and previous negative experience with the vaccination process. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • Influenza (aka the flu) is a seasonal illness caused by a virus and is spread through sneezing, coughing and even talking and breathing by people with the flu virus. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Adverse Event Diaries: Parents will be trained to complete a diary form to observe, measure, and record solicited local reactions for the injection site and systemic signs and symptoms for the child for days 0 through 7 after vaccination, plus unsolicited symptoms, illness, and medications for days 0 through 28. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Many individuals develop an influenza-like illness or a mononucleosis-like illness 2-4 weeks post exposure while others have no significant symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • Most healthy adults can spread the influenza virus beginning one day before they feel sick and usually continue to be contagious for about five days after, which means the virus can spread to close contacts, such as loved ones and co-workers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The rate of seasonal influenza vaccination among American adults this year is only slightly higher than last year, according to results of a nationwide survey. (blogspot.com)
  • Thimerosal is no longer present in most vaccines given to young children in the USA, though it is still present in some vaccines approved for adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive evidence has accumulated since 1999 showing that this preservative is safe, with the World Health Organization stating in 2006 that "there is no evidence of toxicity in infants, children or adults exposed to thiomersal in vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • The barriers limiting the growth of the influenza market include limited patient awareness regarding the threat of influenza and the importance of influenza vaccinations, high investment and strict regulations act as barriers for new entrants. (aarkstore.com)
  • ISCOM-Matrix technology can also be of immense value in a situation when manufacturing capacity is inadequate in the face of an emerging threat such as an influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the latter book, Mercola dismisses medical concerns over an avian influenza pandemic, asserting that the government, big business, and the mainstream media have conspired to promote the threat of avian flu in order to accrue money and power. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccinate
  • That's why the current recommendation to vaccinate all pregnant women against influenza without any sufficient safety studies comparing unvaccinated and vaccinated women is a dangerous and stupid idea. (avn.org.au)
  • centers
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), though the influenza season varies year to year, it can last as late as May. (bio-medicine.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] The JCVI chairman is Professor Andrew Pollard of Oxford Vaccine Group in the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Oxford. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Other emerging players such as Novavax, Daiichi-Sankyo, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, BiondVax Pharmaceuticals Ltd, and VaxInnate are making novel technology based influenza vaccine which is likely to affect the market share during the forecast period. (aarkstore.com)
  • An interdisciplinary team of Oxford University researchers has devised a new technique to speed up the development of novel vaccines. (phys.org)
  • widespread
  • A three-dimensional 'map' of a critical protein that malaria parasites use to invade human red blood cells could lead to a vaccine countering the most widespread species of the parasite. (phys.org)
  • rubella
  • Screening for rubella susceptibility by history of vaccination or by serology is recommended in the US for all women of childbearing age at their first preconception counseling visit to reduce incidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is recommended that all susceptible non-pregnant women of childbearing age should be offered rubella vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnant women
  • The following article from 2006 describes why vaccinating pregnant women against influenza can be dangerous for both the mother and the unborn child. (avn.org.au)
  • 2- A study showed that pregnant women who received the influenza vaccine were 4 times as likely to be hospitalised with flu symptoms than unvaccinated pregnant women. (avn.org.au)
  • 6- Many of the flu vaccines we use today on pregnant women contain thiomersal - a preservative that is 49.6% mercury by weight. (avn.org.au)
  • humans
  • The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of the term cow pox (Latin variolæ vaccinæ , adapted from the Latin vaccīn-us , from vacca cow), which, when administered to humans, provided them protection against smallpox. (phys.org)
  • research
  • It does not appear that the increased public discussion of the role of influenza vaccines has had a significant impact on the public's behavior ," said Katherine Harris, senior economist at RAND, a nonprofit research organization, and one of the researchers who conducted the survey. (blogspot.com)
  • Research into disease prevention on British dairy farms has revealed a variation in how vaccination strategies are implemented by farmers and vets. (phys.org)
  • The research-based pharmaceutical industry's 1.3 million employees research, develop and provide medicines and vaccines that improve the life of patients worldwide. (wikipedia.org)