• immunity
  • A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. (phys.org)
  • widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody-dependent enhancement Cell mediated immunity Humoral immunity Polyclonal response FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Vaccines and Related Biological Products: Advisory Committee(RTF) Deem, Michael W.The Adaptive Immune Response Rice University Thomas Francis Jr (1960). (wikipedia.org)
  • Benefits of In ovo vaccination include avoidance of bird stress, controlled hygienic conditions, and earlier immunity with less interference from maternal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • and one strain from each of two influenza B lineages. (coursera.org)
  • The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors: the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than for others) the strain of vaccine (some vaccines are specific to, or at least most effective against, particular strains of the disease) whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among many developments, in February, 1988, fifteen experts and officials met in the UK to discuss adverse events reported after the administration of the vaccines which contained the attenuated Urabe mumps virus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to JCVI's minutes, the group "read a report of cases of mumps encephalitis which had been associated with MMR vaccine containing the Urabe strain of the mumps virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The JCVI "expressed concern" about giving triple vaccines to children with a personal or family history of convulsions, but considered it appropriate to proceed with a planned introduction of the MMR vaccine in October 1988, including two products containing Urabe strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since that time, government agencies have acted to prevent the importation of single vaccines containing this strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010 Andrew Wakefield was struck off by the General Medical Council for fabrication of results and failure to declare a financial interest in the importation of single strain vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there can be some cross-protection against related flu strains, the best protection would be from a vaccine specifically produced for any future pandemic flu virus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine manufacturing companies are being encouraged to increase capacity so that if a pandemic vaccine is needed, facilities will be available for rapid production of large amounts of a vaccine specific to a new pandemic strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, because a pandemic could result from an avian influenza strain that is lethal to chickens, it is impossible to ensure that eggs will be available to produce vaccine when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • polio
  • 1- Vaccinating mothers with the injected polio vaccine led to a large increase in the risks of brain tumours and other cancers in the babies born to these pregnancies within the first year of life. (avn.org.au)
  • This includes those people who have never had the vaccine, those who didn't receive all doses of the vaccine, or those traveling to areas of the world where polio is still prevalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the war, he joined the U.S. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health Cancer Institute before joining the Salk team responsible for polio vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of the Jonas Salk research team, Youngner contributed in the development of polio vaccine, including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety testing for batches of vaccine and anti-polio antibodies in test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applying this method to a single kidney "could produce enough raw material for 6000 shots of polio vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, vaccination has become readily available, and is important to the prevention of some diseases like polio, rubella, and smallpox, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • Mercury is a potent neurotoxin and the amount that is in the vaccine - 25mcg per 0.5ml dose - is 200 times higher than the EPA safe limit for a foetus and almost 4 times higher than the safe limit for a 70kg adult. (avn.org.au)
  • Children 6 months through 8 years of age receiving the vaccine for the first time should get a second dose at least four weeks after the first one. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Children who only get one dose but need two doses can have reduced or no protection from a single dose of flu vaccine. (whattoexpect.com)
  • The locale is a developing country where financial restraints for the use of full-dose influenza vaccine would limit protection from an influenza pandemic threat, where N-Ss pose dangers and drawbacks in clinical use, and where Mantoux-type N-S ID injections are difficult to administer during mass campaigns. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Upon receiving dose 2 of vaccine, patients will be scheduled again to return to the study center 2, 7, and 28 days afterwards. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Upon returning to clinic on day 28 after dose 2 (day 56 after dose 1), the child will receive an unblinded, 'insurance', full-volume, 0.25 mL dose (#3) of influenza vaccine by NS IM, unless he or she is in the full-dose IM control group IM-NS-0.25, in which case a mock injection will be administered instead of a 3rd full dose beyond the usual 2-dose series. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The present study aims to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of one dose of a commercially available Surface Antigen, Inactivated Influenza Vaccine, Formulation 2006-2007, in non-elderly adult and elderly subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Typically, the dose can be decreased by a factor of 10 to 100, which will significantly cut the production cost of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As is the case in the United States and many other countries, the mercury-based additive thimerosal, previously thought necessary for multi-dose vials of vaccines such as the DPT shot, has largely been phased out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a response against a dengue virus serotype has been established, it is unlikely that vaccination against a second will be effective, implying that balanced responses against all four virus serotypes have to be established with the first vaccine dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • pneumonia and influenza
  • Millions of people - particularly infants in underdeveloped countries-suffer from the serious life threatening illnesses of meningitis, pneumonia and influenza. (phys.org)
  • United States In the ninth week of its routine influenza surveillance, the CDC reports on FluView that thirty-five states have reported widespread influenza activity, and 14 states have reported regional activity, but that although the rate of activity was high, that the proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the epidemic threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The measurement developed by youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after application were important advancements necessary for vaccine success. (wikipedia.org)
  • some individuals are "non-responders" to certain vaccines, meaning that they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2015, a new class of highly potent, neutralizing antibodies that is effective against all four virus serotypes has been isolated, bringing hope for the development of a universal dengue vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemagglutinin is the major antigen of the virus against which neutralizing antibodies are produced, and influenza virus epidemics are associated with changes in its antigenic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunization
  • Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine (NicVAX) or the hormone ghrelin in experiments to create an obesity vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until the 1880s vaccine/vaccination referred only to smallpox, but Louis Pasteur developed immunization methods for chicken cholera and anthrax in animals and for human rabies, and suggested that the terms vaccine/vaccination should be extended to cover the new procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization can be achieved in an active or passive manner: vaccination is an active form of immunization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are important considerations in the effectiveness of a vaccination program:[citation needed] careful modeling to anticipate the impact that an immunization campaign will have on the epidemiology of the disease in the medium to long term ongoing surveillance for the relevant disease following introduction of a new vaccine maintenance of high immunization rates, even when a disease has become rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • Seasonal influenza is a grave public health issue which causes serious illness and death in densely populated regions. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • Influenza (aka the flu) is a seasonal illness caused by a virus and is spread through sneezing, coughing and even talking and breathing by people with the flu virus. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Adverse Event Diaries: Parents will be trained to complete a diary form to observe, measure, and record solicited local reactions for the injection site and systemic signs and symptoms for the child for days 0 through 7 after vaccination, plus unsolicited symptoms, illness, and medications for days 0 through 28. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • She also notes that the study's authors stated that that the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing illness was "small" - meaning that at last 40 people needed to be vaccinated against the flu to prevent just one case of "influenza like illness" and seventy-one people needed to be vaccinated to prevent just one case of influenza. (noforcedvaccines.org)
  • We know that flu vaccination not only decreases the risk of flu-related illness and complications for pregnant women, but can decrease the risk of severe flu-related illness in infants in the first 6 months, before they are old enough to get vaccinated," Deborah Klein Walker, a vice president, senior fellow and practice leader for Public Health and Epidemiology at Abt Associates, said. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • 400 people had reportedly sought treatment for pneumonia/influenza-like illness (ILI) in La Gloria the preceding week. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Since the ISCOM-Matrix is simply mixed with the antigen post-manufacturing, it offers great production advantages and flexibility in vaccine design. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Mercola criticizes many aspects of standard medical practice, such as vaccination and what he views as overuse of prescription drugs and surgery to treat diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines have historically been the most effective means to fight and eradicate infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly diseases in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/influenza/Flu_vacc_manuf_tech_report.pdf" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely quoted date for the beginning of recorded history of avian influenza (initially known as fowl plague) was in 1878 when it was differentiated from other diseases that caused high mortality rates in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • Most healthy adults can spread the influenza virus beginning one day before they feel sick and usually continue to be contagious for about five days after, which means the virus can spread to close contacts, such as loved ones and co-workers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The rate of seasonal influenza vaccination among American adults this year is only slightly higher than last year, according to results of a nationwide survey. (blogspot.com)
  • The researchers found that for healthy adults influenza vaccination "shows no appreciable effect on working days lost or hospitalisation", Smith says. (noforcedvaccines.org)
  • Thimerosal is no longer present in most vaccines given to young children in the USA, though it is still present in some vaccines approved for adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive evidence has accumulated since 1999 showing that this preservative is safe, with the World Health Organization stating in 2006 that "there is no evidence of toxicity in infants, children or adults exposed to thiomersal in vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • widespread
  • A three-dimensional 'map' of a critical protein that malaria parasites use to invade human red blood cells could lead to a vaccine countering the most widespread species of the parasite. (phys.org)
  • United States The CDC reports on the 10th week of FluView that thirty states reported widespread influenza activity and 18 states reported regional activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirteen states reported widespread influenza activity and 19 reported regional activity on the CDC's FluView, Week 12. (wikipedia.org)
  • United States CDC FluView, Week 13: Widespread influenza activity in four states, regional activity in 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • The increasing number of geriatric population and elevated prevalence of seasonal influenza outbreak contribute towards the positive growth of this industry's market.Patent holders are getting secured by the intellectual property rights and hence the market share is constantly increasing. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • novel
  • Other emerging players such as Novavax, Daiichi-Sankyo, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, BiondVax Pharmaceuticals Ltd, and VaxInnate are making novel technology based influenza vaccine which is likely to affect the market share during the forecast period. (aarkstore.com)
  • An interdisciplinary team of Oxford University researchers has devised a new technique to speed up the development of novel vaccines. (phys.org)
  • varicella
  • Pre-conception counseling in the United States is recommended to include: Height and weight to calculate BMI Blood pressure Medical history Abdominal and pelvic examination Rubella screening Varicella screening Domestic violence screening Depression screening Testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia for women at high risk for STDs It is recommended that all pregnant women receive influenza vaccination during flu season. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnant women
  • The following article from 2006 describes why vaccinating pregnant women against influenza can be dangerous for both the mother and the unborn child. (avn.org.au)
  • That's why the current recommendation to vaccinate all pregnant women against influenza without any sufficient safety studies comparing unvaccinated and vaccinated women is a dangerous and stupid idea. (avn.org.au)
  • 2- A study showed that pregnant women who received the influenza vaccine were 4 times as likely to be hospitalised with flu symptoms than unvaccinated pregnant women. (avn.org.au)
  • 6- Many of the flu vaccines we use today on pregnant women contain thiomersal - a preservative that is 49.6% mercury by weight. (avn.org.au)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced on Wednesday the results of two separate studies run by Abt Associates that show approximately half of pregnant women are receiving flu shots and more health care professionals are receiving recommended flu shot vaccinations. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • The survey studied 1,702 pregnant women and found that approximately 50 percent received the flu vaccination. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • Strategies that make it easier for pregnant women to get the vaccine by reducing the costs and helping health care providers recommend the vaccination at each visit are needed. (vaccinenewsdaily.com)
  • It is recommended that all susceptible non-pregnant women of childbearing age should be offered rubella vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • The barriers limiting the growth of the influenza market include limited patient awareness regarding the threat of influenza and the importance of influenza vaccinations, high investment and strict regulations act as barriers for new entrants. (aarkstore.com)
  • ISCOM-Matrix technology can also be of immense value in a situation when manufacturing capacity is inadequate in the face of an emerging threat such as an influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the latter book, Mercola dismisses medical concerns over an avian influenza pandemic, asserting that the government, big business, and the mainstream media have conspired to promote the threat of avian flu in order to accrue money and power. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in recent years, it is estimated that 80 to 90 percent of seasonal influenza-related deaths and 50 to 70 percent of seasonal influenza-related hospitalizations have occurred among people 65 years of age and older. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Immunizing individuals in this age group is especially important because they bear the greatest burden of severe influenza disease and account for the majority of influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Flag icons denote the first announcements of confirmed cases by the respective nation-states, their first deaths (and other major events such as their first intergenerational cases, cases of zoonosis, and the start of national vaccination campaigns), and relevant sessions and announcements of the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Union (and its agency the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (wikipedia.org)
  • He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • centers
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), though the influenza season varies year to year, it can last as late as May. (bio-medicine.org)
  • human
  • Under the circumstances, any policy that attempts to coerce hospital staff into accepting influenza vaccinations is not only an "assault on their human rights to make a free and informed choice about their own medical care" but the policy was also "not supported by solid science", Smith concludes. (noforcedvaccines.org)
  • Test results revealed an Influenza A virus but were negative for standard human strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The site promotes a number of alternative health ideas, including the notion that homeopathy can treat autism, and that vaccinations have hidden detriments to human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] The JCVI chairman is Professor Andrew Pollard of Oxford Vaccine Group in the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Oxford. (wikipedia.org)
  • rubella
  • Screening for rubella susceptibility by history of vaccination or by serology is recommended in the US for all women of childbearing age at their first preconception counseling visit to reduce incidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). (wikipedia.org)