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  • Urethra
  • During urination, the urine is passed from the bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • wastes
  • Urine is composed of water and wastes that are filtered out of the blood system. (bway.net)
  • volume of urine
  • The ICS defines NUV as "the total volume of urine passed between the time the individual goes to bed with the intention of sleeping and the time of waking with the intention of rising. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid intake
  • Under normal conditions, homeostasis (relative uniformity of the body's internal environment) of the total volume of water in the body is maintained or restored primarily by devices that adjust urine output to fluid intake, and secondarily by mechanisms that adjust fluid intake. (bway.net)
  • Conversely, the less the fluid intake, the less the urine volume output. (bway.net)
  • Global polyuria occurs in response to increased fluid intake and is defined as urine outputs of greater than 40 mL/kg/24 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • excrete
  • Have you ever wondered why you sometimes excrete great volumes of urine and sometimes almost none at all? (bway.net)
  • urea
  • The following alterations may occur: reduced urine volume (less than 500 milliliters), increased blood urea and creatinine, and high electrolytes such as potassium. (healthylifecenter.net)
  • Oliguria or anuria (decreased or absent urine output) Fatigue Asterixis (flapping tremor) Decreased alertness Confusion Pale skin Tachycardia (rapid pulse) Xerostomia (dry mouth) Thirst Edema, anasarca (swelling) Orthostatic blood pressure (fluctuates depending on body position) Uremic frost, a condition that occurs when urea and urea derivatives are secreted through the skin in sweat, which evaporates away to leave solid uric compounds, resembling a frost. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in lower levels of urea in the blood and higher levels of urea in the urine as compared to creatinine. (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • Mucocutaneous dysfunctions of paraneoplastic syndromes can be seen in cases of itching (hypereosinophilia), immune system depression (latent varicella-zoster virus in sensory ganglia), pancreatic tumors (leading to adipose nodular necrosis of subcutaneous tissues, flushes (prostaglandin secretions), and even dermic melanosis (cannot be eliminated via urine and results in grey to black-blueish skin tones). (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • The symptoms of excessive urination and extreme thirst are similar to what is seen in untreated diabetes mellitus, with the distinction that the urine does not contain glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • At the end of the tubule, the remaining fluid-urine-exits: it is composed of water, metabolic waste, and toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of tubular fluid changes throughout the nephron, from the proximal tubule to the collecting duct and then as it exits the body, from the ureter. (wikipedia.org)
  • urinary
  • On the other hand, certain illnesses require a patient to keep the pH of their urine within given narrow margins, whether to promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, avoid the precipitation of salts that promote the formation of gallstones, or in order to facilitate the control of a urinary infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Diets rich in animal proteins tend to produce acidic urine, while diets mainly composed of vegetables tend to produce alkali urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • The pH of urine normally vary between 4.5 and 8 with the first urine produced in the morning generally being more acidic and the urine produced after meals generally more alkaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • So, it can stimulate the self-repairing of the impaired nephrons and reduce the incidence of other diseases like infections. (blogspot.com)
  • Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • excess
  • Further, all these substances are eliminated from the body along with excess water as urine. (articlebulb.com)
  • The test method consists of immersing the test strip completely in a well mixed sample of urine for a short period of time, then extracting it from the container and supporting the edge of the strip over the mouth of the container to remove excess urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • increased urine prod
  • Without such a concentrated medulla, water has less of an osmotic driving force to leave the collecting duct system, ultimately resulting in increased urine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • On the one hand it provides information regarding the balance between acid and alkali in a patient and allows identification of the substances that are present in the urine in crystalline form. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Large doses of potassium and magnesium are often necessary to adequately replace the electrolytes lost in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the range of characterizations is broad, people affected by nephronophthisis typically present with polyuria (production of a large volume of urine), polydipsia (excessive liquid intake), and after several months to years, end-stage kidney disease, a condition necessitating either dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react (change color) when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The test strips consist of a ribbon made of plastic or paper of about 5 millimetre wide, plastic strips have pads impregnated with chemicals that react with the compounds present in urine producing a characteristic colour. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • The time taken for the appearance of the test results on the strip can vary from a few minutes after the test to 30 minutes after immersion of the strip in the urine (depending on the brand of product being used). (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal reference values are not provided for urine pH as the variation is too wide and results have to be considered in the context of the other quantifiable parameters. (wikipedia.org)