• promoter
  • Previously, we have shown that the 1.2-kb 5′ flanking region of the TIE2 promoter is capable of directing β-galactosidase reporter gene expression specifically into a subset of endothelial cells (ECs) of transgenic mouse embryos. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, combination of the TIE2 promoter with an intron fragment containing this enhancer allows it to target reporter gene expression specifically and uniformly to virtually all vascular ECs throughout embryogenesis and adulthood. (pnas.org)
  • Chromosome conformation capture (3C) experiments show that chromatin-chromatin interactions exist between upstream regulatory elements and the Lmo2 promoter in erythroid cells but that these interactions are absent from kidney where Lmo2 is transcribed at twelve fold lower levels. (jove.com)
  • Specifically, long range chromatin-chromatin interactions occur between the Lmo2 proximal promoter and two broad regions, 3-31 and 66-105 kb upstream of Lmo2, which we term the proximal and distal control regions for Lmo2 (pCR and dCR respectively). (jove.com)
  • Firefly luciferase activity is assayed after 48 hr to determine the effects of each library gene upon alpha-synuclein transcription, normalized to expression from an internal control construct (a hCMV promoter directing Renilla luciferase). (jove.com)
  • The organization and the structure of the genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) were determined and the effects of elicitor and suppressor produced by a pea pathogen, Mycosphaerella pinodes, were examined by transforming a chimeric DNA containing the PAL- and CHS-promoter fragments connected to a reporter gene into tobacco or pea plant with particle gun, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, or electroporation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chimeric DNA containing PAL promoter fragment connected to luciferase gene (lux), beta-glucuronidase (GUS) or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene as a reporter were constructed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cytological studies showed that plants with Lux or GUS gene connected to 35S promoter as a control exhibited the distinctive GUS atibity in the cells possibly carrying the chimeric DNA, however those with PAL promoter did not exhibit GUS or Lux activities even by the treatment with fungal elicitor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, the sequentially deleted promoter fragment of PSPAL1 connected to a plant expression vector containing the reporter gene (CAT) was introduced into pea protoplasts by electroporation, and induction by elicitor and suppression by orthovanadate was examined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transient expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoter in electroporated pea protoplasts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Remarkably, we demonstrated by promoter expression analyses that the reduced hemolysis in the rstB mutant was accompanied by a strong decrease in transcription activities of the three hemolysin genes dly (damselysin), hlyA pl (phobalysin P) and hlyA ch (phobalysin C). Thus, RstB, encoded in the small chromosome, regulates plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of this fis operon is negatively regulated by Fis in vivo and purified Fis can prevent stable complex formation by RNA polymerase at the fis promoter in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors and promoter elements are shared between Pol II and Pol III transcription of snRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription of a basic prokaryotic gene is dependent on the strength of its promoter and the presence of activators or repressors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They determined abolishing any of the three kai genes would cause arrhythmicity in the circadian clock and reduce kaiBC promoter activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preinitiation complex binds to promoter regions of DNA upstream to the gene that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integration host factor is also a direct activator of ler and binds upstream of its promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The commercially available, Tn 5 -derived transposome used in this protocol consists of a linear segment of DNA containing an R6K γ replication origin, a gene for kanamycin resistance and two mosaic sequence ends, which serve as transposase binding sites. (jove.com)
  • However, even 7.2 kb of the sequence 5′ to the translational start site were not sufficient to recapitulate the endogenous expression pattern beyond the stages of early vasculogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Two of the major pea CHS genes (PSCHS1, PSCHS2) from a cluster in a tandem repeat with a spacer, and an identical 31 bp sequence containing the consensus motif of box I located 5'-upstream from the putative TATA box of both CHS genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We now show similar SMC-restricted expression of human CNN1 from only 38-kb of BAC sequence. (ahajournals.org)
  • We propose that full in vivo CNN1 gene expression requires multiple elements, including five CArG boxes, spread over 14-kb of genomic sequence. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although IL-32 does not share sequence homology with any known cytokine families, IL-32 induces expression of various cytokines, such as TNFα and IL-8, in lymphocytes and monocytic cells ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Within this region, an AU sequence element centered 35 nucleotides upstream of the fis AUG increases fis translation by as much as 15 fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA sequence from which a functional non-coding RNA is transcribed is often called an RNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the utilization of specific recombinases, a particular DNA sequence is inverted, resulting in an ON to OFF switch and vice versa of the gene located within or next to this switch. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many molecular mechanisms behind antigenic variation, including gene conversion, site-specific DNA inversions, hypermutation, as well as recombination of sequence cassettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This assembly is greatly stimulated by the Pol II transcription factors Oct1 and STAF that bind to an enhancer-like DSE (Distal Sequence Element) at least 200 base pairs upstream of the start site of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sigma factors act as mediators of sequence-specific transcription, such that a single sigma factor can be used for transcription of all housekeeping genes or a suite of genes the cell wishes to express in response to some external stimuli such as stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • KaiC has a double-domain structure and sequence that classifies it as part of the RecA gene family of ATP-dependent recombinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A defining feature of TFs is that they contain at least one DNA-binding domain (DBD), which attaches to a specific sequence of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most members of the NBPF gene family are located on chromosomal location 1q21.1-1q23.3 in humans, and these genes are more similar to each other in sequence than they are to NBPF1. (wikipedia.org)
  • sRNA
  • Genetic studies revealed a novel mode of regulation by a sRNA, whereby PhrS uses a base-pairing mechanism to activate a short upstream open reading frame to which the pqsR gene is translationally coupled. (wiley.com)
  • Thus, PhrS is the first bacterial sRNA that provides a regulatory link between oxygen availability and quorum sensing, which may impact on oxygen-limited growth in P. aeruginosa biofilms. (wiley.com)
  • Parallel and later studies in which Smr9C transcript is referred to as Igr#3 or sra32 independently confirmed the expression this sRNA in S. meliloti and in its closely related strain 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • This homology search rendered no matches to known bacterial sRNA in this database. (wikipedia.org)
  • scr4677 expression requires the SCO4677 activity and scr4677 sRNA itself seem to affect the levels of the SCO4676-associated transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small RNA scr5239 (Streptomyces coelicolor sRNA upstream of SCO5239) has two targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Many environmental bacteria are multidrug-resistant and represent a reservoir of ancient antibiotic resistance determinants, which have been linked to genes found in pathogens. (jove.com)
  • A generality of selection for such systems in bacterial pathogens is indicated by the similarity of this genetic arrangement to that of Staphylococcus aureus -haemolysin. (hindawi.com)
  • This form of regulation has been identified mainly, but not exclusively, for a wide variety of surface structures in pathogens and is implicated as a virulence strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Hox genes encode transcription factors that are used to regionalize the mammalian embryo. (sdbonline.org)
  • Some examples of this include producing the mRNA that encode enzymes to adapt to a change in a food source, producing the gene products involved in cell cycle specific activities, and producing the gene products responsible for cellular differentiation in higher eukaryotes, as studied in evolutionary developmental biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • meliloti
  • Recent deep sequencing-based characterization of the small RNA fraction (50-350 nt) of S. meliloti further confirmed the expression of Smr35B (here referred to as SmelB053), and mapped the 5'- and 3´-ends of the molecule to the positions proposed earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of S. meliloti a second copy was identified in the symbiotic plasmid pSymB (574630-574766) with a significant E-value (3.73e-07) but no expression has been detected under any of the tested conditions (unpublished data). (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplementation of MM with luteolin, the plant flavone that specifically induces transcription of the S. meliloti nodulation genes, stimulated the expression of Smr35B by ~4 fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • In the context of cocaine conditioned place preference, and other cocaine behavioral paradigms such as self-administration or psychomotor sensitization that can involve withdrawal, extinction and/or reinstatement phases, this technique is particularly useful in exploring the unique contribution of target genes to these distinct phases of behavioral models of cocaine-induced plasticity. (jove.com)
  • Specifically, this technique allows for selective ablation of target genes during discrete phases of a behavior to test their contribution to the behavior across time. (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • When administered in vivo , LiCl increased hepatic β-catenin level in a dose-dependent manner with simultaneous increase in NOS2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on the evidence that β-catenin regulates genes involved in carcinogenesis, including those associated with inflammation, and that NOS2 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, we studied the involvement of NOS2 in Wnt signaling pathway and tested the hypothesis that β-catenin regulates NOS2 using both in vitro and in vivo models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first time that an in vivo expression system has been assembled by which heterologous genes can be targeted exclusively to the ECs of the entire vasculature. (pnas.org)
  • This should be a valuable tool to address the function of genes during physiological and pathological processes of vascular ECs in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, we have embarked on the development of an in vivo expression system in which heterologous gene expression can be targeted specifically and uniformly to ECs throughout development and the adult animal. (pnas.org)
  • Transgenic mice carrying the 38-kb BAC with point mutations in all four intronic CArG elements show similar findings suggesting that SRF directly mediates in vivo expression of CNN1 primarily through intronic CArG elements. (ahajournals.org)
  • locus
  • More specifically, Ler regulates the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island genes, which are responsible for creating intestinal attachment and effacing lesions and subsequent diarrhea: LEE1, LEE2, and LEE3. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Many bacterial species can utilize inversion to change the expression of certain genes for the benefit of the bacterium during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on a number of single-domain homologous genes in other species, KaiC is hypothesized to have horizontally transferred from Bacteria to Archaea, eventually forming the double-domain KaiC through duplication and fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to RsaE, RsaF and its upstream gene have only been identified in S.aureus species. (wikipedia.org)
  • RsaE and RsaF genes overlap in S.aureus species but appear to have opposite expression patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The NBPF2 pseudogene and NBPF3 gene are the most similar genes located close to NBPF1 and they reside on the chromosomal location 1p36.12. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • The silent versions of this gene, PilS, can use homologous recombination to combine with parts of the PilE gene and thus create a different phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is partially dependent on homologous recombination of DNA, which is mediated in part by the interaction of the T. brucei BRCA2 gene with RAD51 (however, this is not the only responsible mechanism, as BRCA2 variants still display some VSG switching). (wikipedia.org)
  • heterologous
  • Heterologous expression and in vitro enzyme assays with purified RPHs from diverse bacterial genera show that these enzymes are capable of conferring high-level resistance to a variety of clinically used rifamycin antibiotics. (jove.com)
  • knockout
  • Microinjecting recombinant adenoassociated viral (rAAV) vectors expressing Cre recombinase into distinct mouse brain regions to selectively knockout genes of interest allows for enhanced temporally- and regionally-specific control of gene deletion, compared to existing methods. (jove.com)
  • vertebrate
  • Mrf4 expression requires at least four elements, one of which may be shared with Myf5, providing a possible explanation for the linkage of these genes throughout vertebrate phylogeny. (biologists.org)
  • Hox genes control regional identity during segmentation of the vertebrate hindbrain into rhombomeres. (sdbonline.org)
  • enhancer
  • Herein we describe the identification and characterization of an autonomous endothelial-specific enhancer in the first intron of the mouse TIE2 gene. (pnas.org)
  • oxidative
  • i.e. bacterial growth in TY, minimal medium (MM) and luteolin-MM broth and endosymbiotic bacteria (i.e. mature symbiotic alfalfa nodules) and high salt stress, oxidative stress and cold and hot shock stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • RsaE was shown to be regulated by the presence of nitric oxide (NO). In Bacillus subtilis it controls expression of genes with functions related to oxidative stress and oxidation-reduction reactions and it was renamed RoxS (for related to oxidative stress). (wikipedia.org)
  • closely
  • Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations in individual and multiple Hox genes is beginning to reveal a complex network of interactions among these closely related genes which is responsible for directing the formation of spatially restricted tissues and structures. (sdbonline.org)
  • investigate
  • This technique can be used to investigate the genes involved in other characteristics of Enterobacter sp. (jove.com)
  • role
  • In this paper, we focus on the potential role of FOXOs in different disease models and the regulation of FOXOs by various stimuli. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies demonstrate that Krml1 directly activates expression of Hoxb-3 in r5 in combination with an Ets-related activation site, and suggest that kreisler plays a primary role in regulating segmental identity through Hox genes (Manzanares, 1997). (sdbonline.org)
  • Since IL-32 expression is regulated by inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral lymphocyte cells, it has been implicated that it may play a role in inflammatory/autoimmune diseases ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The role of PBR in the regulation of cholesterol transport from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-determining step in steroid biosynthesis, has been studied in detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • KaiC's key role in circadian control and homology to RecA suggest its individual evolution before its presence in the KaiABC gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quorum sensing plays a role in Ler regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • operon
  • The rcsC gene is convergently transcribed toward rcsB , which follows rcsD in what appears to be a two-gene operon. (wiley.com)
  • regulators
  • This approach is implemented for pleiotropic bacterial regulators, including σ 70 (bacterial housekeeping σ factor) target predictions, which is a classical bioinformatics problem characterized by low specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The TIE2 gene, coding for one of the receptors of the newly identified family of regulators of vascular remodeling, called the angiopoietins ( 8 , 9 ), appeared to be a promising candidate in the search for EC-specific transcriptional regulatory elements. (pnas.org)
  • We present a rapid and inexpensive high-throughput screening protocol to identify transcriptional regulators of alpha-synuclein, a gene associated with Parkinson's disease. (jove.com)
  • Using these methods, we screened 7,670 human genes and identified 68 regulators of alpha-synuclein. (jove.com)
  • strongly
  • Previous analysis has shown that although mice homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in either Hoxa3 or Hoxd3 have no defects in common, mice mutant for both genes demonstrate that these two genes strongly interact in a dosage-dependent manner. (sdbonline.org)
  • Expression of Smr9C in free-living bacteria was found to be growth-dependent, being the gene strongly down-regulated when bacteria entered the stationary phase, whereas no expression was detected in endosymbiotic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)