• promoter
  • Complex regulation of csgD promoter activity by global regulatory proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • Previously, we have shown that the 1.2-kb 5′ flanking region of the TIE2 promoter is capable of directing β-galactosidase reporter gene expression specifically into a subset of endothelial cells (ECs) of transgenic mouse embryos. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, combination of the TIE2 promoter with an intron fragment containing this enhancer allows it to target reporter gene expression specifically and uniformly to virtually all vascular ECs throughout embryogenesis and adulthood. (pnas.org)
  • Chromosome conformation capture (3C) experiments show that chromatin-chromatin interactions exist between upstream regulatory elements and the Lmo2 promoter in erythroid cells but that these interactions are absent from kidney where Lmo2 is transcribed at twelve fold lower levels. (jove.com)
  • Specifically, long range chromatin-chromatin interactions occur between the Lmo2 proximal promoter and two broad regions, 3-31 and 66-105 kb upstream of Lmo2, which we term the proximal and distal control regions for Lmo2 (pCR and dCR respectively). (jove.com)
  • Firefly luciferase activity is assayed after 48 hr to determine the effects of each library gene upon alpha-synuclein transcription, normalized to expression from an internal control construct (a hCMV promoter directing Renilla luciferase). (jove.com)
  • The organization and the structure of the genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) were determined and the effects of elicitor and suppressor produced by a pea pathogen, Mycosphaerella pinodes, were examined by transforming a chimeric DNA containing the PAL- and CHS-promoter fragments connected to a reporter gene into tobacco or pea plant with particle gun, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, or electroporation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chimeric DNA containing PAL promoter fragment connected to luciferase gene (lux), beta-glucuronidase (GUS) or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene as a reporter were constructed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cytological studies showed that plants with Lux or GUS gene connected to 35S promoter as a control exhibited the distinctive GUS atibity in the cells possibly carrying the chimeric DNA, however those with PAL promoter did not exhibit GUS or Lux activities even by the treatment with fungal elicitor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, the sequentially deleted promoter fragment of PSPAL1 connected to a plant expression vector containing the reporter gene (CAT) was introduced into pea protoplasts by electroporation, and induction by elicitor and suppression by orthovanadate was examined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transient expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoter in electroporated pea protoplasts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Remarkably, we demonstrated by promoter expression analyses that the reduced hemolysis in the rstB mutant was accompanied by a strong decrease in transcription activities of the three hemolysin genes dly (damselysin), hlyA pl (phobalysin P) and hlyA ch (phobalysin C). Thus, RstB, encoded in the small chromosome, regulates plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of this fis operon is negatively regulated by Fis in vivo and purified Fis can prevent stable complex formation by RNA polymerase at the fis promoter in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors and promoter elements are shared between Pol II and Pol III transcription of snRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription of a basic prokaryotic gene is dependent on the strength of its promoter and the presence of activators or repressors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They determined abolishing any of the three kai genes would cause arrhythmicity in the circadian clock and reduce kaiBC promoter activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preinitiation complex binds to promoter regions of DNA upstream to the gene that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integration host factor is also a direct activator of ler and binds upstream of its promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • sRNA
  • Genetic studies revealed a novel mode of regulation by a sRNA, whereby PhrS uses a base-pairing mechanism to activate a short upstream open reading frame to which the pqsR gene is translationally coupled. (wiley.com)
  • Thus, PhrS is the first bacterial sRNA that provides a regulatory link between oxygen availability and quorum sensing, which may impact on oxygen-limited growth in P. aeruginosa biofilms. (wiley.com)
  • Parallel and later studies in which Smr9C transcript is referred to as Igr#3 or sra32 independently confirmed the expression this sRNA in S. meliloti and in its closely related strain 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • This homology search rendered no matches to known bacterial sRNA in this database. (wikipedia.org)
  • scr4677 expression requires the SCO4677 activity and scr4677 sRNA itself seem to affect the levels of the SCO4676-associated transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small RNA scr5239 (Streptomyces coelicolor sRNA upstream of SCO5239) has two targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal DNA tran
  • Bacterial conjugation is a mechanism for horizontal DNA transfer between bacteria which requires cell to cell contact, usually mediated by self-transmissible plasmids. (jove.com)
  • meliloti
  • Recent deep sequencing-based characterization of the small RNA fraction (50-350 nt) of S. meliloti further confirmed the expression of Smr35B (here referred to as SmelB053), and mapped the 5'- and 3´-ends of the molecule to the positions proposed earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of S. meliloti a second copy was identified in the symbiotic plasmid pSymB (574630-574766) with a significant E-value (3.73e-07) but no expression has been detected under any of the tested conditions (unpublished data). (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplementation of MM with luteolin, the plant flavone that specifically induces transcription of the S. meliloti nodulation genes, stimulated the expression of Smr35B by ~4 fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Hox genes encode transcription factors that are used to regionalize the mammalian embryo. (sdbonline.org)
  • Some examples of this include producing the mRNA that encode enzymes to adapt to a change in a food source, producing the gene products involved in cell cycle specific activities, and producing the gene products responsible for cellular differentiation in higher eukaryotes, as studied in evolutionary developmental biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • When administered in vivo , LiCl increased hepatic β-catenin level in a dose-dependent manner with simultaneous increase in NOS2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on the evidence that β-catenin regulates genes involved in carcinogenesis, including those associated with inflammation, and that NOS2 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, we studied the involvement of NOS2 in Wnt signaling pathway and tested the hypothesis that β-catenin regulates NOS2 using both in vitro and in vivo models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fimbria-mediated interaction with the host elicits both innate and adaptive immune responses, and thus their expression may not always be beneficial in vivo. (asmscience.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first time that an in vivo expression system has been assembled by which heterologous genes can be targeted exclusively to the ECs of the entire vasculature. (pnas.org)
  • This should be a valuable tool to address the function of genes during physiological and pathological processes of vascular ECs in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, we have embarked on the development of an in vivo expression system in which heterologous gene expression can be targeted specifically and uniformly to ECs throughout development and the adult animal. (pnas.org)
  • Transgenic mice carrying the 38-kb BAC with point mutations in all four intronic CArG elements show similar findings suggesting that SRF directly mediates in vivo expression of CNN1 primarily through intronic CArG elements. (ahajournals.org)
  • mechanism
  • Fine-tuned regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular and intracellular signals is a key mechanism for successful adaptation of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The process is partially dependent on homologous recombination of DNA, which is mediated in part by the interaction of the T. brucei BRCA2 gene with RAD51 (however, this is not the only responsible mechanism, as BRCA2 variants still display some VSG switching). (wikipedia.org)
  • Though little is known of the mechanism of Ler regulation, Ler interacts with DNA in specific ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional interference due to an overlap between a σA recognition motif and a potential σB binding site is proposed as a mechanism causing the differential expression of the two transcripts RsaOG Geissmann T, Chevalier C, Cros MJ, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotor
  • They were eventually able to localize the gene region causing this rescue, and observed circadian rhythmicity in upstream promotor activity of kaiA and kaiB, as well as in the expression of kaiA and kaiBC messenger RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • Amastigotes mostly express membrane transporters and genes involved in regulation of cell cycle, and also express a specific subset of surface glycoprotein coding genes. (peerj.com)
  • locus
  • More specifically, Ler regulates the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island genes, which are responsible for creating intestinal attachment and effacing lesions and subsequent diarrhea: LEE1, LEE2, and LEE3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • It contains 8,667,507 bp, encoding 7,825 predicted genes, including over 20 gene clusters for the synthesis of known or predicted natural products. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • The silent versions of this gene, PilS, can use homologous recombination to combine with parts of the PilE gene and thus create a different phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative stress
  • i.e. bacterial growth in TY, minimal medium (MM) and luteolin-MM broth and endosymbiotic bacteria (i.e. mature symbiotic alfalfa nodules) and high salt stress, oxidative stress and cold and hot shock stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • RsaE was shown to be regulated by the presence of nitric oxide (NO). In Bacillus subtilis it controls expression of genes with functions related to oxidative stress and oxidation-reduction reactions and it was renamed RoxS (for related to oxidative stress). (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • Mrf4 expression requires at least four elements, one of which may be shared with Myf5, providing a possible explanation for the linkage of these genes throughout vertebrate phylogeny. (biologists.org)
  • Hox genes control regional identity during segmentation of the vertebrate hindbrain into rhombomeres. (sdbonline.org)
  • enhancer
  • Herein we describe the identification and characterization of an autonomous endothelial-specific enhancer in the first intron of the mouse TIE2 gene. (pnas.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The first is a chromosomal gene duplication rearrangement occurring spontaneously at a low frequency [≤10(-5)], generating expression of a new chimeric sigH gene. (jove.com)
  • Importantly, we have demonstrated for the first time that S. aureus cells producing active SigH become competent for transformation by plasmid or chromosomal DNA, which requires the expression of SigH-controlled competence genes. (jove.com)
  • closely
  • Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations in individual and multiple Hox genes is beginning to reveal a complex network of interactions among these closely related genes which is responsible for directing the formation of spatially restricted tissues and structures. (sdbonline.org)
  • operons
  • Individual examples are discussed in detail to illustrate how the regulatory factors cooperate to allow tight control of expression of single operons. (asmscience.org)
  • Molecular networks that allow coordinated expression between multiple fimbrial operons and with flagella in a single isolate are also presented. (asmscience.org)
  • Genes and operons directly co-regulated by the same TF or by an RNA structure are considered to belong to a regulon . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, some of these expression systems are not strictly EC-specific ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, TIE2 expression becomes superinduced under conditions of increased vessel growth, e.g., during wound healing and tumor angiogenesis (unpublished observation). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, genes are often flanked by several binding sites for distinct transcription factors, and efficient expression of each of these genes requires the cooperative action of several different transcription factors (see, for example, hepatocyte nuclear factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • Taken together, we propose a unique model for staphylococcal competence regulation by SigH that could help explain the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer in this important pathogen. (jove.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin genes are often transferred through horizontal gene transfer and are associated with pathogenic bacteria, having been found on plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigate
  • This technique can be used to investigate the genes involved in other characteristics of Enterobacter sp. (jove.com)
  • plasmid
  • Third, the R6Kγ replication origin makes it easy to identify the mutated gene which is partially recovered in a recombinant plasmid. (jove.com)
  • Plasmid stabilising toxin-antitoxin systems have been used as examples of selfish DNA as part of the gene centered view of evolution. (wikipedia.org)