Loading...


  • enzyme
  • This correctly suggests that fluorocitric acid administered as such, or formed from fluoroacetic acid via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibits an enzyme of citrate oxidation. (britannica.com)
  • Coordinated ligands of SOD mimetics fine-tune the chemical properties of the complex and are designed to match the 300mV reduction potential of the native enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Since the mechanism of SOD mimetics involves a redox cycle, the catalytic activity of the SOD mimetic is partially dependent on the reduction potential of the metal center. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • The oxidation of the furan ring leads to the formation of an unstable epoxide (cyclic ester with a three-atom ring), so an alkylating intermediate species, 4-IPO enedial, is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the chlorine atom is in the +5 oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfers
  • CTR1 then transfers the copper to one of several intracellular chaperones that protect Cu +1 from oxidation and delivers it to sites where it is required throughout the cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • state
  • Reduction is made with the addition of hydrogen atoms to specific nitrogen atoms on the isoalloxazine ring system: In aqueous solution, flavins are yellow-coloured when oxidized, taking a red colour in the semi-reduced anionic state or blue in the neutral (semiquinone) state, and colourless when totally reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these systems, the metal changes oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of chlorates include potassium chlorate, KClO3 sodium chlorate, NaClO3 magnesium chlorate, Mg(ClO3)2 If a Roman numeral in brackets follows the word "chlorate", this indicates the oxyanion contains chlorine in the indicated oxidation state, namely: Using this convention, "chlorate" means any chlorine oxyanion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly, "chlorate" refers only to chlorine in the +5 oxidation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • In the presence of a suitable hydrogen donor or hydrogen gas, Shvo's catalyst is useful for the reduction of several functional groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • redox
  • In general, diatomic gases only bind to the reduced heme, as ferrous Fe(II) while most peroxidases cycle between Fe(III) and Fe(IV) and hemeproteins involved in mitochondrial redox, oxidation-reduction, cycle between Fe(II) and Fe(III). (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that the values for the electrochemical potential rendered in a redox half-reaction, whereby the elements in question change oxidation states are the same whatever the pH conditions under which the procedure is carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • aromatic
  • The method has been shown to be effective for a wide range of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes however electron rich aromatic R groups, such as phenols, are unsuitable as they preferentially undergo rapid electrophilic aromatic halogenation with the oxidising agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ortho-substitution of the aromatic units results in a stabilization against oxidation, but the closed-ring form still has a low thermodynamic stability in most cases (e.g. 2,3-dimesityl-2-butene has a half-life of 90 seconds at 20°C). This problem can be addressed by lowering the aromaticity of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • unstable
  • Antioxidants are chemicals that naturally help fight the harmful oxidation effects of unstable molecules in your body called free radicals that occurs naturally in the body when you are exposed to harmful environmental factors. (teaology.co.nz)
  • typically
  • The synthesis of 2-oxazoline rings is well established and in general proceeds via the cyclisation of a 2-amino alcohol (typically obtained by the reduction of an amino acid) with a suitable functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen dioxide typically arises via the oxidation of nitric oxide by oxygen in air: 2 NO + O 2 → 2 NO 2 Nitrogen dioxide is formed in most combustion processes using air as the oxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermal
  • Through a systematic investigation of the refractory properties of binary ceramics, they discovered that the early transition metal borides, carbides, and nitrides had surprisingly high thermal conductivity, resistance to oxidation, and reasonable mechanical strength when small grain sizes were used. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • In fact, recent studies of human skeletal muscle have revealed a decrease in the percentage of type I (oxidative) muscle fibers and parallel decreases in muscle glucose transport and lipid oxidation in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes relative to lean control subjects ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • involves
  • Another commercial production of silane involves reduction of silicon dioxide (SiO2) under Al and H2 gas in a mixture of NaCl and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) at high pressures: 3 SiO2 + 6 H2 + 4 Al → 3 SiH4 + 2 Al2O3 In 1857, the German chemists Heinrich Buff and Friedrich Woehler discovered silane among the products formed by the action of hydrochloric acid on aluminum silicide, which they had previously prepared. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Major classes of oxazoline based ligand include: Bis-oxazolines (BOX) Phosphinooxazolines (PHOX) Tris-oxazolines (TRISOX) Notable specialist oxazoline ligands include: Phenol-oxazolines Bis(oxazolinato)s Trisoxazolinylborate ligands 2-Oxazolines, such as 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, can undergo living cationic ring-opening polymerisation to form poly(2-oxazoline)s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate condense with reduction by NADPH to form squalene - by squalene synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comproportionation is when two equivalents of an element, differing in oxidation number, combine to form a product with an intermediate oxidation number. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the 6π electrocyclization of the Z form to the "close-ring" form, most unsubstituted diarylethenes are prone to oxidation, leading to a re-aromatization of the π-system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to overcome the first, the 2-position of the thiophenes is substituted with a methyl group, preventing oxidation of the ring closed form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Step
  • Complex B reacts in a transmetallation with the copper acetylide, complex F, which is produced in the copper cycle, to give complex C, expelling the copper halide, complex G. Both organic ligands are trans oriented and convert to cis in a trans-cis isomerization to produce complex D. In the final step, complex D undergoes reductive elimination to produce the alkyne, with regeneration of the palladium catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Although the colon contains Gram-negative bacteria in abundance, they do not cause a pyrogenic effect as the bacteria are not undergoing gross lysis, and the immune system is not exposed to free endotoxin while the colonic wall is intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • A goal of the wastewater purification by means of AOP procedures is the reduction of the chemical contaminants and the toxicity to such an extent that the cleaned wastewater may be reintroduced into receiving streams or, at least, into a conventional sewage treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water
  • The Water Treatment Plant has undergone numerous improvements and expansions to serve the growing population and increasing demand for water from both the industrial/commercial and residential consumers. (saskatoon.sk.ca)
  • The contaminant materials are converted to a large extent into stable inorganic compounds such as water, carbon dioxide and salts, i.e. they undergo mineralization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the complete reduction product of ·OH is H2O, AOPs theoretically do not introduce any new hazardous substances into the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • order
  • Most often, the Frost diagram displays oxidation number in increasing order, but in some cases it is displayed in decreasing order. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • The most common example is E-stilbene, which upon irradiation undergoes an E to Z isomerization, which can be followed by a 6π electrocyclization. (wikipedia.org)
  • standard
  • We ve precisely targeted leukemia, lung, and liver cancer cells, and because the DNA probes are so precise in targeting only specific types of cancer cells we ve seen dramatic reduction in drug toxicity in comparison to standard chemotherapies, which don t discriminate well between cancerous and healthy cells. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • despite
  • Despite the high melting points of pure UHTCs, they are unsuitable for many refractory applications because of their high susceptibility to oxidation at elevated temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the conformational changes synchronised in the pair of subunits facilitates the catalysis despite the reduction of the number of available active sites. (wikipedia.org)